Bibliographie e cigarette 2015

Bibliographie sur la e cigarette  en 2015

Une des idées reçues, fréquemment entendues sur la cigarette électronique et que « l’on n’en sait pas encore assez ».

Ecig R&D a souhaité compiler ici, les résumés des études sur la e cigarette. Evidemment, nous effectuerons dorénavant un classement par année car la liste s’allonge.
1. Tob Control. 2015 Apr 23. pii: tobaccocontrol-2015-052235. doi:
10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052235. [Epub ahead of print]

Electronic cigarettes: analysis of FDA adverse experience reports in non-users.

Durmowicz EL(1), Rudy SF(1), Chen IL(1).

Author information:
(1)Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration,
Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

PMID: 25908596 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
2. J Adolesc Health. 2015 May;56(5):522-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.01.022.

Tripling use of electronic cigarettes among new zealand adolescents between 2012
and 2014.

White J(1), Li J(2), Newcombe R(2), Walton D(2).

Author information:
(1)Research and Evaluation, Health Promotion Agency, Wellington, New Zealand.
Electronic address: j.white@hpa.org.nz. (2)Research and Evaluation, Health
Promotion Agency, Wellington, New Zealand.

PURPOSE: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adults has flourished
in recent years. However, little is known about their use among adolescents. This
article reports on data collected from a New Zealand national youth tobacco use
survey in 2012 and 2014.
METHODS: The Youth Insights Survey is a biennial self-complete survey of Year 10
students (predominately aged 14-15 years), with a sample size of 3,127 in 2012
and 2,919 in 2014. Ever-use of e-cigarettes was self-reported by participants in
both years, and in 2014, e-cigarette ever-users also reported their reasons for
first trying e-cigarettes.
RESULTS: The rate of e-cigarette ever-use tripled from 7.0% in 2012 to 20.0% in
2014. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, smoking status (including
susceptibility), and other factors associated with tobacco smoking uptake,
e-cigarette ever-use was associated with gender, smoking status, close friends’
smoking behavior, and risky substance use. Among smokers, desire for a cigarette,
quit intention, or past-year quit attempts did not predict e-cigarette ever-use.
Irrespective of smoking status, curiosity was the most commonly cited reason for
trying e-cigarettes.
CONCLUSIONS: In 2014, one in five 14- to 15-year-olds had used e-cigarettes. Our
data suggest that for adolescent smokers, cessation was not the main reason for
trying e-cigarettes. Instead, most adolescents (smokers and nonsmokers) tried
e-cigarettes out of curiosity. Our findings signal a need to continue monitoring
the uptake of e-cigarettes among adolescents, including both experimental and
long-term use. Controlling access and exposure to e-cigarettes among this young
age group is also required.

Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by
Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25907651 [PubMed – in process]
3. Am J Emerg Med. 2015 Feb 26. pii: S0735-6757(15)00125-4. doi:
10.1016/j.ajem.2015.02.036. [Epub ahead of print]

Incidence of electronic cigarette exposures in children skyrockets in Arizona.

LoVecchio F(1), Zoph O(2).

Author information:
(1)Banner Good Samaritan Poison and Drug Information Center, CTPER, Phoenix, AZ
85006, USA; Maricopa Integrated Health System, Emergency Department, Phoenix, AZ
85008, USA; University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ
85006, USA. Electronic address: frank.lovecchio@bannerhealth.com. (2)University
of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ 85006, USA.

PMID: 25907498 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
4. Addiction. 2015 Apr 21. doi: 10.1111/add.12917. [Epub ahead of print]

Is the use of electronic cigarettes while smoking associated with smoking
cessation attempts, cessation and reduced cigarette consumption? A survey with a
1-year follow-up.

Brose LS(1), Hitchman SC, Brown J, West R, McNeill A.

Author information:
(1)Department of Addictions, UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies (UKCTAS),
Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London,
London, UK.

AIMS: To use a unique longitudinal data set to assess the association between
e-cigarette use while smoking with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and
substantial reduction, taking into account frequency of use and key potential
confounders.
DESIGN: Web-based survey, baseline November/December 2012, 1-year follow-up in
December 2013.
SETTING: Great Britain.
PARTICIPANTS: National general population sample of 4064 adult smokers, with 1759
(43%) followed-up.
MEASUREMENTS: Main outcome measures were cessation attempt, cessation and
substantial reduction (≥50% from baseline to follow-up) of cigarettes per day
(CPD). In logistic regression models, cessation attempt in the last year
(analysis n = 1473) and smoking status (n = 1656) at follow-up were regressed on
to baseline e-cigarette use (none, non-daily, daily) while adjusting for baseline
socio-demographics, dependence and nicotine replacement (NRT) use. Substantial
reduction (n = 1042) was regressed on to follow-up e-cigarette use while
adjusting for baseline socio-demographics and dependence and follow-up NRT use.
FINDINGS: Compared with non-use, daily e-cigarette use at baseline was associated
with increased cessation attempts [odds ratio (OR) = 2.11, 95% confidence
interval (CI) = 1.24-3.58, P = 0.006], but not with cessation at follow-up
(OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.28-1.37, P = 0.24). Non-daily use was not associated with
cessation attempts or cessation. Daily e-cigarette use at follow-up was
associated with increased odds of substantial reduction (OR = 2.49, 95%
CI = 1.14-5.45, P = 0.02), non-daily use was not.
CONCLUSIONS: Daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking appears to be associated
with subsequent increases in rates of attempting to stop smoking and reducing
smoking, but not with smoking cessation. Non-daily use of e-cigarettes while
smoking does not appear to be associated with cessation attempts, cessation or
reduced smoking.

© 2015 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of
Society for the Study of Addiction.

PMID: 25900312 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
5. Am J Prev Med. 2015 Apr 17. pii: S0749-3797(15)00083-5. doi:
10.1016/j.amepre.2015.02.019. [Epub ahead of print]

The Prevalence of E-cigarette Use in a Sample of U.S. Air Force Recruits.

Little MA(1), Derefinko KJ(2), Colvin L(2), Ebbert JO(3), Bursac Z(2), Talcott
GW(2), Richey PA(2), Klesges RC(2).

Author information:
(1)Department of Preventive Medicine and Center for Population Sciences,
University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee. Electronic
address: mlittl18@uthsc.edu. (2)Department of Preventive Medicine and Center for
Population Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis,
Tennessee. (3)Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is
increasing markedly in the general population. Yet, remarkably little research
exists to examine these ongoing trends in at-risk populations, and nothing is
known about the prevalence of e-cigarette use among military personnel. The
purpose of the current study is to provide recent (2013-2014) data on the
prevalence of regular e-cigarette use in a population of recruits prior to their
entry into the U.S. military.
METHODS: The study utilized a cross-sectional assessment of e-cigarette and other
tobacco and nicotine-containing product (TNCP) use in 2013-2014 among 10,043 U.S.
Air Force (USAF) recruits in Technical Training. Chi-square tests, the
Cochran-Armitage test for trend, and logistic regression models tested
differences and trends across time for e-cigarette use.
RESULTS: The rate of e-cigarette use among recruits was 5.2%, which doubled (3%
to 6.5%, p<0.0001) across a 1-year period. E-cigarette use was associated with
increased odds of all measured TNCPs, as well as dual and poly use (all
p<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Rates of e-cigarette use are slightly higher in young USAF recruits
than in the general population, and e-cigarette users are likely to be using
other TNCPs in tandem. Although additional work is needed to understand the
reasons for this concomitant use, this is a necessary first step to understanding
e-cigarette use prevalence in military populations. Historic trends suggest that,
like general populations, e-cigarette use is on the rise for those entering the
USAF and should be monitored to inform future prevention programming.

Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier
Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25896193 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
6. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Apr 20. pii: ntv081. [Epub ahead of print]

Awareness and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in Indonesia, Malaysia, Qatar,
and Greece: Findings from 2011-2013 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys.

Palipudi KM(1), Morton J(2), Mbulo L(2), Bunnell R(3), Blutcher-Nelson G(2),
Kosen S(4), Tee GH(5), Abdalla AM(6), Al Mutawa KA(6), Barbouni A(7), Antoniadou
E(7), Fouad H(8), Khoury RN(9), Rarick J(10), Sinha DN(11), Asma S(2).

Author information:
(1)Global Tobacco Control Branch, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center
for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
gou8@cdc.gov. (2)Global Tobacco Control Branch, Office on Smoking and Health,
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC,
Atlanta, Georgia, USA. (3)Office of Smoking and Health, NCCDPHP, CDC, Atlanta,
GA, USA. (4)National Institute of Health Research & Development, Ministry of
Health, Republic of Indonesia. (5)Institute for Public Health, Ministry of
Health, Malaysia. (6)Public Health Department, Supreme Council of Health, Qatar.
(7)National School of Public Health, Greece. (8)Regional Office for the Eastern
Mediterranean, World Health Organization, Cairo, Egypt. (9)Regional Office for
Europe, World Health Organization, Copenhagen, Denmark. (10)Western Pacific
Regional Office, World Health Organization, Manila, Philippines. (11)South-East
Asia Regional Office, World Health Organization, New Delhi, India.

INTRODUCTION: Increases in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) awareness and
current use have been documented in high income countries but less is known about
middle and low income countries.
METHODS: Nationally representative household survey data from the first four
Global Adult Tobacco Surveys (GATS) to assess e-cigarettes were analyzed,
including Indonesia (2011), Malaysia (2011), Qatar (2013), and Greece (2013).
Correlates of e-cigarette awareness and current use were calculated. Sample sizes
for Greece and Qatar allowed for further analysis of e-cigarette users.
RESULTS: Awareness of e-cigarettes was10.9% in Indonesia, 21.0% in Malaysia,
49.0% in Qatar and 88.5% in Greece. In all four countries, awareness was higher
among male, younger, more educated, and wealthier respondents. Current
e-cigarette use among those aware of e-cigarettes was 3.9% in Malaysia, 2.5% in
Indonesia, 2.2% in Greece and 1.8% in Qatar. Across these four countries, an
estimated 818,500 people are currently using e-cigarettes. Among current
e-cigarette users, 64.4% in Greece and 84.1% in Qatar also smoked cigarettes,
and, 10.6% in Greece and 6.0% in Qatar were never smokers.
CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarette awareness and use was evident in all four countries.
Ongoing surveillance and monitoring of awareness and use of e-cigarettes in these
and other countries could help inform tobacco control policies and public health
interventions. Future surveillance should monitor use of e-cigarettes among
current smokers and uptake among never-smokers and relapsing former smokers.

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society
for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions,
please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

PMID: 25895951 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
7. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Apr 21;162(8):583-4. doi: 10.7326/M14-2481.

Electronic nicotine delivery systems: executive summary of a policy position
paper from the american college of physicians.

Crowley RA; Health Public Policy Committee of the American College of Physicians.

Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include electronic cigarettes,
or e-cigarettes, are growing in popularity, but their safety and efficacy as a
smoking cessation aid are not well understood. Some argue that they have the
potential to reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality and could be a useful
tool for reducing tobacco-related harm. Others express concern that the health
effects of ENDS use are unknown, that they may appeal to young people, and that
they may encourage dual use of ENDS and traditional tobacco products. Although
ENDS are a new and unregulated product, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has
proposed regulations that would deem ENDS to be subject to the Family Smoking
Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which regulates cigarettes and other tobacco
products. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians offers
policy recommendations on ENDS regulation and oversight, taxation, flavorings,
promotion and marketing, indoor and public use, and research. This paper is not
intended to offer clinical guidance or serve as an exhaustive literature review
of existing ENDS-related evidence but to help direct the College, policymakers,
and regulators on how to address these products.

PMID: 25894027 [PubMed – in process]
8. BMC Public Health. 2015 Apr 11;15(1):358. [Epub ahead of print]

Use of electronic cigarettes among Romanian university students: a
cross-sectional study.

Lotrean LM(1,)(2).

Author information:
(1)Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
llotrean@umfcluj.ro. (2)Organization Pure Air, Bucharest, Romania.
llotrean@umfcluj.ro.

BACKGROUND: Because electronic cigarettes are relatively new, data on usage
patterns and factors which influence them are sparse. Hence, this study aims at
assessing awareness, beliefs about electronic cigarettes and experimentation with
them among university students from Romania- a country where the sales and
marketing of these products are widespread. Secondly, correlates of electronic
cigarette experimentation will also be investigated.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed by means of anonymous
questionnaires among 480 students, aged 19-24, from Cluj-Napoca, Romania, between
April-May 2013.
RESULTS: The results show that 92.5% of the students have heard about
e-cigarettes; out of these, one quarter (53.3% of the smokers, 25% of the
ex-smokers, 5.5% of the non-smokers) have tried electronic cigarettes at least
once during lifetime. The results of the multinomial logistic regression point
out that the correlates of electronic cigarette experimentation were: male
gender, being a smoker of traditional cigarettes, having friends who experimented
with electronic cigarettes, having stronger beliefs that electronic cigarettes
could help them quit smoking and being less convinced that they are used only by
smokers. The explained variance was 59%.
CONCLUSIONS: The results underline the importance of addressing the issue of
e-cigarette use through health education programs and regulatory interventions,
since e-cigarettes are a reality faced by the Romanian youth.

PMID: 25888354 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
9. Tob Control. 2015 Apr 15. pii: tobaccocontrol-2014-052175. doi:
10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052175. [Epub ahead of print]

Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids.

Tierney PA(1), Karpinski CD(2), Brown JE(1), Luo W(2), Pankow JF(3).

Author information:
(1)Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Portland State University,
Portland, Oregon, USA. (2)Department of Chemistry, Portland State University,
Portland, Oregon, USA. (3)Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Portland State University, Portland, Oregon, USA Department of Chemistry,
Portland State University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

BACKGROUND: Most e-cigarette liquids contain flavour chemicals. Flavour chemicals
certified as safe for ingestion by the Flavor Extracts Manufacturers Association
may not be safe for use in e-cigarettes. This study identified and measured
flavour chemicals in 30 e-cigarette fluids.
METHODS: Two brands of single-use e-cigarettes were selected and their fluids in
multiple flavour types analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the
same flavour types, and for selected confectionary flavours (eg, bubble gum and
cotton candy), also analysed were convenience samples of e-cigarette fluids in
refill bottles from local ‘vape’ shops and online retailers.
RESULTS: In many liquids, total flavour chemicals were found to be in the ∼1-4%
range (10-40 mg/mL); labelled levels of nicotine were in the range of 0.6-2.4% (6
to 24 mg/mL). A significant number of the flavour chemicals were aldehydes, a
compound class recognised as ‘primary irritants’ of mucosal tissue of the
respiratory tract. Many of the products contained the same flavour chemicals:
vanillin and/or ethyl vanillin was found in 17 of the liquids as one of the top
three flavour chemicals, and/or at ≥0.5 mg/mL.
CONCLUSIONS: The concentrations of some flavour chemicals in e-cigarette fluids
are sufficiently high for inhalation exposure by vaping to be of toxicological
concern. Regulatory limits should be contemplated for levels of some of the more
worrisome chemicals as well as for total flavour chemical levels. Ingredient
labeling should also be required.

Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not
already granted under a licence) please go to
http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

PMID: 25877377 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
10. BMJ Open. 2015 Apr 15;5(4):e007197. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007197.

Experts’ consensus on use of electronic cigarettes: a Delphi survey from Switzerland.

Blaser J(1), Cornuz J(1).

Author information:
(1)Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine, University of Lausanne,
Lausanne, Switzerland.

OBJECTIVES: In some countries, nicotine-containing electronic cigarettes
(e-cigarettes) are considered a consumer product without specific regulations. In
others (eg, Switzerland), the sale of e-cigarettes containing nicotine is
forbidden, despite the eagerness of many smokers to obtain them. As scientific
data about efficacy and long-term safety of these products are scarce, tobacco
control experts are divided on how to regulate them. In order to gain consensus
among experts to provide recommendations to health authorities, we performed a
national consensus study.
SETTING: We used a Delphi method with electronic questionnaires to bring together
the opinion of Swiss experts on e-cigarettes.
PARTICIPANTS: 40 Swiss experts from across the country.
OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured the degree of consensus between experts on
recommendations regarding regulation, sale, use of and general opinion about
e-cigarettes containing nicotine. New recommendations and statements were added
following the experts’ answers and comments.
RESULTS: There was consensus that e-cigarettes containing nicotine should be made
available, but only under specific conditions. Sale should be restricted to
adults, using quality standards, a maximum level of nicotine and with an
accompanying list of authorised ingredients. Advertisement should be restricted
and use in public places should be forbidden.
CONCLUSIONS: These recommendations encompass three principles: (1) the reality
principle, as the product is already on the market; (2) the prevention principle,
as e-cigarettes provide an alternative to tobacco for actual smokers, and (3) the
precautionary principle, to protect minors and non-smokers, since long-term
effects are not yet known. Swiss authorities should design specific regulations
to sell nicotine-containing e-cigarettes.

Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not
already granted under a licence) please go to
http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

PMID: 25877274 [PubMed – in process]
11. BMJ Open. 2015 Apr 15;5(4):e007072. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007072.

Electronic-cigarette use among young people in Wales: evidence from two cross-sectional surveys.

Moore G(1), Hewitt G(1), Evans J(2), Littlecott HJ(1), Holliday J(1), Ahmed N(1),
Moore L(3), Murphy S(1), Fletcher A(1).

Author information:
(1)Centre for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions for Public
Health Improvement (DECIPHer), School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University,
Cardiff, UK. (2)South East Wales Trials Unit (SEWTU), School of Medicine, Cardiff
University, Cardiff, UK. (3)MRC/CSO Social & Public Health Sciences Unit,
University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of electronic(e)-cigarette use, prevalence
of e-cigarette and tobacco use by age, and associations of e-cigarette use with
sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco and cannabis use among young people in
Wales.
DESIGN: Data from two nationally-representative cross-sectional surveys
undertaken in 2013-2014. Logistic regression analyses, adjusting for school-level
clustering, examined sociodemographic characteristics of e-cigarette use, and
associations between e-cigarette use and smoking.
SETTING: Primary and secondary schools in Wales.
PARTICIPANTS: Primary-school children aged 10-11 (n=1601) and secondary-school
students aged 11-16 (n=9055).
RESULTS: Primary-school children were more likely to have used e-cigarettes
(5.8%) than tobacco (1.6%). Ever use of e-cigarettes remained more prevalent than
ever use of tobacco until age 14-15. Overall, 12.3% of secondary-school students
(aged 11-16) reported ever using e-cigarettes, with no differences according to
gender, ethnicity or family affluence. The percentage of ‘never smokers’
reporting having used e-cigarettes was 5.3% at age 10-11 to 8.0% at age 15-16.
The proportion of children who had ever used an e-cigarette and reported
currently smoking increased from 6.9% among 10-11 year olds to 39.2% in
15-16 year olds. Only 1.5% (n=125) of 11-16 year-olds, including 0.3% of never
smokers, reported regular e-cigarette use (use at least once a month). Current
weekly smokers were 100 times more likely than non-smokers to report regular
e-cigarette use (relative risk ratio (RRR=121.15; 95% CI 57.56 to 254.97).
Regular e-cigarette use was also more likely among those who had smoked cannabis
(RRR 53.03; 95% CI 38.87 to 80.65).
CONCLUSIONS: Many young people (including never-smokers) have tried e-cigarettes.
However, regular use is less common, and is associated with tobacco cigarette
use. Longitudinal research is needed to understand age-related trajectories of
e-cigarette use and to understand the temporal nature of relationships between
e-cigarette and tobacco use.

Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not
already granted under a licence) please go to
http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

PMID: 25877272 [PubMed – in process]
12. Int J Drug Policy. 2015 Mar 19. pii: S0955-3959(15)00070-5. doi:
10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.03.003. [Epub ahead of print]

A pilot study on nicotine residues in houses of electronic cigarette users, tobacco smokers, and non-users of nicotine-containing products.

Bush D(1), Goniewicz ML(2).

Author information:
(1)Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton
Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA. (2)Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park
Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA. Electronic
address: maciej.goniewicz@roswellpark.org.

BACKGROUND: Nicotine deposited on the surfaces has been shown to react with
airborne chemicals leading to formation of carcinogens and contributing to
thirdhand exposure. While prior studies revealed nicotine residues in tobacco
smokers’ homes, none have examined the nicotine residue in electronic cigarette
(e-cigarette) users’ homes.
METHODS: We measured nicotine on the surfaces in households of 8 e-cigarette
users, 6 cigarette smokers, and 8 non-users of nicotine-containing products in
Western New York, USA. Three surface wipe samples were taken from the floor, wall
and window. Nicotine was extracted from the wipes and analyzed using gas
chromatography.
RESULTS: Half of the e-cigarette users’ homes had detectable levels of nicotine
on surfaces whereas nicotine was found in all of the tobacco cigarette smokers’
homes. Trace amounts of nicotine were also detected in half of the homes of
non-users of nicotine-containing products. Nicotine levels in e-cigarette users
homes was significantly lower than that found in cigarette smokers homes (average
concentration 7.7±17.2 vs. 1303±2676μg/m(2); p<0.05). There was no significant
difference in the amount of nicotine in homes of e-cigarette users and non-users
(p>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Nicotine is a common contaminant found on indoor surfaces. Using
e-cigarettes indoors leads to significantly less thirdhand exposure to nicotine
compared to smoking tobacco cigarettes.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25869751 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
13. Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2015 Apr 13:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]

Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards waterpipe tobacco smoking and electronic shisha (e-shisha) among young adults in London: a qualitative analysis.

Kotecha S(1), Jawad M(2), Iliffe S(1).

Author information:
(1)1Department of Primary Care and Population Health,University College
London,London,UK. (2)2Department of Primary Care and Public Health,Imperial
College London,Hammersmith,London,UK.

Introduction Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS), known in the United Kingdom as
shisha, is popular among adolescents worldwide. Some electronic cigarettes are
marketed in the United Kingdom as ‘electronic shisha’ (e-shisha). This study
aimed to understand how WTS users view e-shisha and whether it could be used as a
harm-reduction or cessation aid.

METHOD: In-depth face-to-face interviews were
conducted with 16 young adults recruited by snowball sampling in London, UK.
Recurrent themes were derived iteratively through thematic analysis.
RESULTS: WTS is a socially acceptable activity, carried out at home or in a café.
Peer influence and flavour play a key role in its use. Participants were aware of
some health risks of WTS, although many accepted this risk and reported a need
for more health-related WTS information. Although participants were familiar with
e-shisha, there was no evidence of its use as a harm-reduction or cessation
product. E-shisha tasted different to flavoured waterpipe tobacco and removed the
positive social attributes typically ascribed to WTS. Waterpipe users felt
e-shisha may encourage non-users to initiate cigarettes or WTS.
CONCLUSION: Opinions of reduced risk in using WTS may be due to the lack of
available information, misconceptions and its easy accessibility. E-shisha does
not appear to play a role in WTS harm reduction or cessation. On-going research
efforts should test educational interventions addressing the adverse health
impacts of WTS in this population group.

PMID: 25864374 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
14. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Apr 11. pii: ntv080. [Epub ahead of print]

« Direct Dripping »: A High-Temperature, High-Formaldehyde Emission Electronic Cigarette Use Method.

Talih S(1), Balhas Z(1), Salman R(2), Karaoghlanian N(2), Shihadeh A(3).

Author information:
(1)Mechanical Engineering Department, American University of Beirut, Lebanon •
Center for the Study of Tobacco Products, Department of Psychology, Virginia
Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia • (2)Mechanical Engineering
Department, American University of Beirut, Lebanon • (3)Mechanical Engineering
Department, American University of Beirut, Lebanon • Center for the Study of
Tobacco Products, Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University,
Richmond, Virginia • Sloan Automotive Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, Cambridge as20@aub.edu.lb.

INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) electrically heat and vaporize a
liquid solution to produce an inhalable nicotine-containing aerosol. Normally the
electrical heater is fed the liquid via an automatic wick system. Some ECIG
users, however, elect to directly drip liquid onto an exposed heater coil,
reportedly for greater vapor production and throat hit. Use of such « direct drip
atomizers » (DDAs) may involve greater exposure to non-nicotine toxicants due to
the potentially higher temperatures reached by the coil. In this study we
examined nicotine and volatile aldehyde (VA) emissions from one type of DDA under
various use scenarios, and measured heater temperature.
METHODS: Aerosols were machine-generated from an NHALER(TM) 510 Atomizer powered
by an eGo-T battery (Joyetech(TM)), using a common PG-based liquid and a fixed
puffing regimen. Inter-drip interval (IDI), the number of puffs drawn between
replenishing the liquid on the coil, was varied from 2-4 puffs/drip. Total
particulate matter, nicotine, and VA yields were quantified. Heater temperature
was monitored using an infrared camera.
RESULTS: Depending on the condition, VA emissions, including formaldehyde,
greatly exceeded values previously reported for conventional ECIGs and
combustible cigarettes, both per puff and per unit of nicotine yield. Increasing
the IDI resulted in greater VA emissions, and lower TPM and nicotine yields.
Maximum heater coil temperature ranged from 130°C to more than 350°C.
CONCLUSIONS: Due to the higher temperatures attained, DDAs are inherently likely
to produce high toxicant emissions. The diversity of ECIG use methods, including
potential off-label methods, should be considered as ECIG regulatory efforts
proceed.

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society
for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions,
please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

PMID: 25863521 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
15. Open Med Chem J. 2015 Feb 27;9:1-12. doi: 10.2174/1874104501509010001.
eCollection 2015.

Use & Misuse of Water-filtered Tobacco Smoking Pipes in the World. Consequences for Public Health, Research & Research Ethics.

Chaouachi K(1).

Author information:
(1)DIU Tabacologie, Université Paris XI, France.

BACKGROUND: The traditional definition of an « epidemic » has been revisited by
antismoking researchers. After 400 years, Doctors would have realized that one
aspect of an ancient cultural daily practice of Asian and African societies was
in fact a « global « epidemic » ». This needed further investigation particularly if
one keeps in his mind the health aspects surrounding barbecues.
METHOD: Here, up-to-date biomedical results are dialectically confronted with
anthropological findings, hence in real life, in order to highlight the extent of
the global confusion: from the new definition of an « epidemic » and « prevalence »
to the myth of « nicotine « addiction » » and other themes in relation to water
filtered tobacco smoking pipes (WFTSPs).
RESULTS: We found that over the last decade, many publications, -particularly
reviews, « meta-analyses » and « systematic reviews »- on (WFTSPs), have actually
contributed to fuelling the greatest mix-up ever witnessed in biomedical
research. One main reason for such a situation has been the absolute lack of
critical analysis of the available literature and the uncritical use of citations
(one seriously flawed review has been cited up to 200 times). Another main reason
has been to take as granted a biased smoking robot designed at the US American of
Beirut whose measured yields of toxic chemicals may differ dozens of times from
others’ based on the same « protocol ». We also found that, for more than one
decade, two other main methodological problems are: 1) the long-lived
unwillingness to distinguish between use and misuse; 2) the consistent unethical
rejection of biomedical negative results which, interestingly, are quantitatively
and qualitatively much more instructive than the positive ones.
CONCLUSION: the great majority of WFTSP toxicity studies have actually measured,
voluntarily or not, their misuse aspects, not the use in itself. This is in
contradiction with both the harm reduction and public health doctrines. The
publication of negative results should be encouraged instead of being stifled.

PMCID: PMC4384226
PMID: 25861403 [PubMed]
16. BMC Med. 2015 Mar 18;13:54. doi: 10.1186/s12916-015-0298-3.

Electronic cigarette use and harm reversal: emerging evidence in the lung.

Polosa R.

Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have been rapidly gaining ground on conventional
cigarettes due to their efficiency in ceasing or reducing tobacco consumption,
competitive prices, and the perception of them being a much less harmful smoking
alternative. Direct confirmation that long-term EC use leads to reductions in
smoking-related diseases is not available and it will take a few decades before
the tobacco harm reduction potential of this products is firmly established.
Nonetheless, it is feasible to detect early changes in airway function and
respiratory symptoms in smokers switching to e-vapor. Acute investigations do not
appear to support negative respiratory health outcomes in EC users and initial
findings from long-term studies are supportive of a beneficial effect of EC use
in relation to respiratory outcomes. The emerging evidence that EC use can
reverse harm from tobacco smoking should be taken into consideration by
regulatory authorities seeking to adopt proportional measures for the e-vapor
category.

PMCID: PMC4365531
PMID: 25857426 [PubMed – in process]
17. Int J Drug Policy. 2015 Mar 14. pii: S0955-3959(15)00068-7. doi:
10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.03.001. [Epub ahead of print]

What to consider when regulating electronic cigarettes: Pros, cons and unintended consequences.

Caponnetto P(1), Saitta D(2), Sweanor D(3), Polosa R(4).

Author information:
(1)Centro per la Prevenzione e Cura del Tabagismo, Azienda
Ospedaliero-Universitaria « Policlinico-V. Emanuele », Via S. Sofia 78, 95123
Catania, Italy; Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Università di
Catania, Via Palermo 636, 95121 Catania, Italy. Electronic address:
p.caponetto@unict.it. (2)Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale,
Università di Catania, Via Palermo 636, 95121 Catania, Italy. (3)Faculty of Law,
University of Ottawa, 75 Laurier Avenue East, Ottawa ON K1 N 6N5, Canada.
(4)Centro per la Prevenzione e Cura del Tabagismo, Azienda
Ospedaliero-Universitaria « Policlinico-V. Emanuele », Via S. Sofia 78, 95123
Catania, Italy; Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Università di
Catania, Via Palermo 636, 95121 Catania, Italy.

Many public health experts, medical research societies, large health
organizations and policy makers have expressed concerns about the increased
popularity of electronic cigarettes and have pushed for more restrictive measures
ranging from complete bans to tight regulations of these products either as
medicines or as tobacco products. But these concerns have never been adequately
qualified nor quantified. Without judicious assessment and thorough evaluation,
regulations may have unintended consequences that can do more damage than good in
public health terms. In this article, we will appraise the existing prominent
regulatory frameworks for e-cigarettes, namely, general consumer product,
medicinal product and tobacco product regulation, to highlight their pros and
cons. Moreover, we provide concrete examples of the unintended consequences which
may arise from inappropriate regulatory action.

Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

PMID: 25857204 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
18. Cancer. 2015 Mar 1;121(5):800.

Erratum: Borderud SP, Li Y, Burkhalter JE, Sheffer CE and Ostroff JS.

Electronic cigarette use among patients with cancer: Characteristics of electronic cigarette
users and their smoking cessation outcomes.

[No authors listed]

Erratum for
Cancer. 2014 Nov 15;120(22):3527-35.

The authors discovered some errors regarding reference group labels in Table 2.
The corrected table is attached. The authors regret these errors.

PMID: 25855820 [PubMed – in process]
19. Can Respir J. 2015 Mar-Apr;22(2):83-5.

E-cigarette use in patients receiving home oxygen therapy.

Lacasse Y, Légaré M, Maltais F.

Current smokers who are prescribed home oxygen may not benefit from the therapy.
In addition to being an obvious fire hazard, there is some evidence that the
physiological mechanisms by which home oxygen is believed to operate are
inhibited by smoking. Although their effectiveness is yet to be demonstrated,
electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often regarded as an aid to smoking
cessation. However, several burn accidents in e-cigarette smokers receiving home
oxygen therapy have also been reported, leading Health Canada to release a
warning of fire risk to oxygen therapy patients from e-cigarettes. It is the
authors’ position that patients receiving oxygen should definitely not use
e-cigarettes. The authors provide suggestions for addressing the delicate issue
of home oxygen therapy in current cigarette and⁄or e-cigarette smokers.

PMCID: PMC4390016 [Available on 2015-09-01]
PMID: 25848719 [PubMed – in process]
20. Eur J Neurol. 2015 May;22(5):e64-5. doi: 10.1111/ene.12657.

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome triggered by an electronic cigarette: case report.

Vannier S(1), Ronziere T, Ferre JC, Lassalle V, Verin M.

Author information:
(1)Department of Neurology, Rennes University Hospital, Rennes, France.

PMID: 25846567 [PubMed – in process]
21. Am J Prev Med. 2015 Mar 31. pii: S0749-3797(15)00077-X. doi:
10.1016/j.amepre.2015.02.013. [Epub ahead of print]

Adolescent Electronic Cigarette Use: Associations With Conventional Cigarette and Hookah Smoking.

Barnett TE(1), Soule EK(2), Forrest JR(3), Porter L(4), Tomar SL(5).

Author information:
(1)Department of Behavioral Science and Community Health, College of Public
Health and Health Professions. Electronic address: tebarnett@phhp.ufl.edu.
(2)Department of Behavioral Science and Community Health, College of Public
Health and Health Professions. (3)Bureau of Chronic Disease Prevention, Florida
Department of Health, Tallahassee, Florida. (4)Bureau of Tobacco Free Florida,
Florida Department of Health, Tallahassee, Florida. (5)Department of Community
Dentistry and Behavioral Science, College of Dentistry, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida.

INTRODUCTION: The emerging trends and rapid growth of electronic cigarettes
(e-cigarettes) among adolescents are being monitored closely. The trends are
critical as policy to prevent uptake among adolescents is considered. The purpose
of this study is to describe the prevalence of e-cigarette use and potential
correlates for use. Associations between e-cigarettes, cigarettes, and hookah are
assessed.
METHODS: This study used data from the 2013 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey.
Prevalence estimates were calculated in 2014 and differences were determined
based on CIs. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to identify
correlates of e-cigarette use among participants based on demographic and other
tobacco products used.
RESULTS: There were no sex differences in middle school, whereas male high school
students reported higher use than their female counterparts. Cigarette smoking
and hookah use were significantly associated with ever and current e-cigarette
use among both middle and high school students.
CONCLUSIONS: Although e-cigarettes are being assessed as a potential replacement
product for traditional tobacco, evidence from this study indicates the
possibility of multiple product use among adolescents. E-cigarettes are not only
associated with traditional cigarettes, but also with hookahs, a similar emerging
product that offer tobacco flavors that may appeal to adolescents. Notably, many
e-cigarette users also reported no cigarette or hookah use.

Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier
Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25840880 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
22. Paediatr Child Health. 2015 Mar;20(2):101-5.

E-cigarettes: Are we renormalizing public smoking? Reversing five decades of tobacco control and revitalizing nicotine dependency in children and youth in Canada.

Stanwick R(1).

Author information:
(1)Past president of the Canadian Paediatric Society.

An electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) is a battery attached to a chamber
containing liquid that may (or may not) contain nicotine. The battery heats the
liquid and converts it into a vapour, which is inhaled, mimicking tobacco
smoking. The e-cigarette does not rely on tobacco as a source of nicotine but,
rather, vaporizes a liquid for inhalation. E-liquids are often flavoured and may
contain nicotine in various concentrations, although actual amounts are seldom
accurately reflected in container labelling. The deleterious effects of nicotine
on paediatric health are well established. The use of e-cigarettes in the
paediatric age group is on the rise in Canada, as are associated nicotine
poisonings. E-devices generate substantial amounts of fine particulate matter,
toxins and heavy metals at levels that can exceed those observed for conventional
cigarettes. Children and youth are particularly susceptible to these atomized
products. Action must be taken before these devices become a more established
public health hazard. Policies to denormalize tobacco smoking in society and
historic reductions in tobacco consumption may be undermined by this new
‘gateway’ product to nicotine dependency.

Publisher: Abstract available from the publisher.
PMCID: PMC4373571 [Available on 2015-09-01]
PMID: 25838785 [PubMed]
23. Chest. 2015 Apr 2. doi: 10.1378/chest.15-0540. [Epub ahead of print]

Counterpoint: Does the Risk of Electronic Cigarettes Exceed Potential Benefits? No.

Middlekauff HR.

Abstract: Although the medical community is unanimous in its wish to limit, or
even eliminate tobacco smoking, the role of electronic(e)-cigarettes in this
process has been controversial. Will e-cigarettes be part of the solution by harm
reduction – and are e-cigarettes really less harmful? Or will e-cigarettes
contribute to the problem by serving as a gateway to tobacco cigarettes? As we
are debating, regulations are being issued – and challenged. Unfortunately, due
to a paucity of data, the calls for regulations in some cases sound alarmist.
Certainly contributing to the strong opposition roused by the e-cigarette is our
well-founded distrust of anything associated with the $85 billion U.S.
combusted-cigarette industry. Tobacco cigarette smoke is responsible for ∼480,000
deaths/year in the U.S. Approximately 18% of adult Americans smoke, a number
which has not significantly decreased for a decade, despite anti-smoking
campaigns, high cigarette taxes, and smoke-free policies. The position argued
here is that an emotion-based, rather than evidenced-based, response to
e-cigarettes may lead to a premature and scientifically unjustified rejection of
a potentially beneficial means to reduce the enormous adverse health effects of
tobacco cigarettes.

PMID: 25837266 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
24. Chest. 2015 Apr 2. doi: 10.1378/chest.15-0538. [Epub ahead of print]

Point: Does the Risk of Electronic Cigarettes Exceed Potential Benefits? Yes.

Avdalovic MV, Murin S.

Abstract: The use of e-cigarettes continues to dramatically increase, and the
debate over their safety and appropriate use has heated up, in parallel. We as
pulmonary clinicians are called upon to advise our patients and others about
e-cigarettes, which presents challenges given the current limitations of the data
upon which our advice should be based. What do we say?

PMID: 25836723 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
25. Rev Med Suisse. 2015 Jan 21;11(458):207-17.

[ORL].

[Article in French]

Marchal F.

This 2014 version of news in ENT–established by reading more than 10,000
abstracts published in 2014–will focuss this year on two main topics that are
trendy: Robotic surgery in ENT, and e-cigarette. Of course, other subjects will
be treated as well, in the format of guidelines, like for otitis externa,
tinnitus, ear grommets, Bell’s palsy, children’s sinusitis, topical treatments in
sinusitis, or dangers of radiation on kids. Some interesting mobile applications
will be as well presented.

PMID: 25831614 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
26. Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol. 2015 Mar 1;28(1):2-6.

Electronic Cigarettes: Vulnerability of Youth.

Schraufnagel DE(1).

Author information:
(1)Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep, and Allergy, Department of
Medicine M/C 719, University of Illinois at Chicago , Chicago, Illinois.

Electronic cigarettes have become popular and are heavily promoted as a safer
cigarette and an aid to quit smoking. Although they may have value in reducing
cigarette use among smokers, they are of limited value in smoking cessation and
pose many problems, particularly in children. Nicotine is highly addictive and
affects virtually all cells in the body. It is particularly harmful to developing
brains and other organs. The electronic nicotine delivery systems are largely
uncontrolled and safety risks are manifold. Initiating nicotine use and
increasing dependence in the population may be linked with increased tobacco and
other addictive substance abuse even if the individual electronic cigarette
delivers less harm than a combustible cigarette does.

PMCID: PMC4359356
PMID: 25830075 [PubMed]
27. Addict Behav. 2015 Jul;46:77-81. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.03.005. Epub 2015 Mar
16.

The effect of electronic cigarette advertising on intended use among college students.

Trumbo CW(1), Kim SJ(2).

Author information:
(1)Department of Journalism and Media Communication, Colorado State University,
1785 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Electronic address:
ctrumbo@mac.com. (2)Department of Journalism and Media Communication, Colorado
State University, 1785 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

INTRODUCTION: . Aside from prohibiting health claims, there are presently no
restrictions on electronic cigarette advertising in the U.S. Studies have shown
college students have a positive view of e-cigarettes and use on campuses is
increasing. The purpose of this study was to test if the appeal of e-cigarette
advertisements and beliefs about the addictiveness of e-cigarettes may affect
their uptake among college students.
METHODS: The study was framed within the Theory of Reasoned Action, which posits
that behavioral intention can be understood in terms of social norms and
attitudes toward a behavior. We also included variables capturing appeal of
e-cigarette advertisements, belief that e-cigarettes are not as addictive as
cigarettes, and tobacco use. Attitudes toward e-cigarettes, perceived norms
concerning their use, beliefs that e-cigarettes are not as addictive as
cigarettes, and positive appraisal of e-cigarette advertising videos were all
hypothesized to be independently positively associated with intention to use an
e-cigarette. Data were collected through a survey of students at a major U.S.
university (participation rate 78%, N=296). Participants were exposed to three
e-cigarette video advertisements in random order.
RESULTS: In a regression analysis we found positive reaction to the ads and
holding the belief that e-cigarettes are not as addictive were both independently
associated with intention. Attitudes and norms were also associated but were
controlled by inclusion of the other variables.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that advertising may promote the uptake of
e-cigarettes and may do so in addition to current smoking and alternate tobacco
use status.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25827334 [PubMed – in process]
28. N Z Med J. 2015 Mar 27;128(1411):77-82.

Nicotine and toxicant yield ratings of electronic cigarette brands in New Zealand.

Laugesen M(1).

Author information:
(1)Health New Zealand Ltd (a nicotine and tobacco research and policy
consultancy), Christchurch, New Zealand. hnz@healthnz.co.nz.

AIMS: To analyse electronic cigarette (EC) brands available in New Zealand for
nicotine and toxicant yield ratings.
METHOD: Fourteen EC brands were analysed before and after nicotine exhaustion for
nicotine and nine for major toxicants. Concentration of nicotine and aldehydes in
vapour was measured and compared with the nicotine and aldehydes in the smoke of
a Marlboro cigarette.
RESULTS: ECs labelled as high strength (16-18+ mg nicotine) contained 5-46 mg
nicotine. Nicotine EC brands yielded 19-93 mcg nicotine per puff compared to 147
mcg per puff for Marlboro cigarettes, and emitted 200 times less toxic aldehydes
(acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and acrolein) than Marlboro cigarette smoke. Compared
with the first generation EC, study ECs emitted 73% less aldehydes. Diethylene
and monoethylene glycol were not detected in vapour.
CONCLUSION: ECs available in New Zealand in 2013 exposed users to higher levels
of nicotine than in older brands but lower than cigarettes, and to far lower
levels of toxicants than cigarettes and earlier ECs, indicating potential as
safer substitutes for tobacco.

PMID: 25820506 [PubMed – in process]
29. Int J Drug Policy. 2015 Mar 3. pii: S0955-3959(15)00066-3. doi:
10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.02.003. [Epub ahead of print]

A licence to vape: Is it time to trial of a nicotine licensing scheme to allow Australian adults controlled access to electronic cigarettes devices and refill
solutions containing nicotine?

Gartner C(1), Hall W(2).

Author information:
(1)UQ Centre for Clinical Research, The University of Queensland, Herston, QLD
4029, Australia; School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Cnr
Wyndham St and Herston Road, Herston, QLD 4006, Australia. Electronic address:
c.gartner@uq.edu.au. (2)Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research, The University
of Queensland, Herston, QLD 4029, Australia; National Addiction Centre, Kings
College London, 4 Windsor Walk, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8BB, United Kingdom.

Australia has some of the most restrictive laws concerning use of nicotine in
e-cigarettes. The only current legal option for Australians to legally possess
and use nicotine for vaping is with a medical prescription and domestic supply is
limited to compounding pharmacies that prepare medicines for specific patients.
An alternative regulatory option that could be implemented under current drugs
and poisons regulations is a ‘nicotine licensing’ scheme utilising current
provisions for ‘dangerous poisons’. This commentary discusses how such a scheme
could be used to trial access to nicotine solutions for vaping outside of a
‘medicines framework’ in Australia.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25817484 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
30. Circulation. 2015 Feb 10;131(6):e342.

Response to letter regarding article, « Electronic cigarettes: a scientific review ».

Grana R, Benowitz N, Glantz S.

Comment on
Circulation. 2014 May 13;129(19):1972-86.

PMID: 25815391 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
31. Circulation. 2015 Feb 10;131(6):e341.

Letter by Herzig regarding article, « Electronic cigarettes: a scientific review ».

Herzig Z.

Comment on
Circulation. 2014 May 13;129(19):1972-86.

PMID: 25815390 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
32. Tob Induc Dis. 2015 Mar 24;13(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s12971-015-0030-2. eCollection
2015.

E-cigarettes versus NRT for smoking reduction or cessation in people with mental
illness: secondary analysis of data from the ASCEND trial.

O’Brien B(1), Knight-West O(1), Walker N(1), Parag V(1), Bullen C(1).

Author information:
(1)National Institute for Health Innovation, School of Population Health, The
University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

BACKGROUND: People with mental illness have higher rates of smoking than the
general population and are at greater risk of smoking-related death and
disability. In smokers from the general population, electronic cigarettes
(e-cigarettes) have been shown to have a similar effect on quit rates as nicotine
replacement therapy, but little is known about their effect in smokers with
mental illness.
METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from the ASCEND trial involving 657 dependent
adult smokers motivated to quit, randomised to 16 mg nicotine e-cigarette, 21 mg
nicotine patch, or 0 mg nicotine e-cigarette, with minimal behavioural support.
Using self-reported medication use and the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical
Classification System, we identified 86 participants with mental illness and
analysed their cessation and smoking reduction outcomes.
RESULTS: For e-cigarettes alone, and all interventions pooled, there was no
statistically significant difference in biochemically verified quit rates at six
months between participants with and without mental illness, nor in smoking
reduction, adverse events, treatment compliance, or acceptability. Rates of
relapse to smoking were higher in participants with mental illness. Among this
group, differences between treatments were not statistically significant for
cessation (patch 14% [5/35], 16 mg e-cigarette 5% [2/39], 0 mg e-cigarette 0%
[0/12], p = 0.245), adverse events or relapse rates. However, e-cigarette users
had higher levels of smoking reduction, treatment compliance, and acceptability.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of e-cigarettes for quitting appears to be equally
effective, safe, and acceptable for people with and without mental illness. For
people with mental illness, e-cigarettes may be as effective and safe as patches,
yet more acceptable, and associated with greater smoking reduction.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical trials Registry, number:
ACTRN12610000866000.

PMCID: PMC4374189
PMID: 25814920 [PubMed]
33. BMJ Open. 2015 Mar 26;5(3):e007134. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007134.

Is exposure to e-cigarette communication associated with perceived harms of
e-cigarette secondhand vapour? Results from a national survey of US adults.

Tan AS(1), Bigman CA(2), Mello S(3), Sanders-Jackson A(4).

Author information:
(1)Population Sciences Division, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Center for
Community Based Research, Boston, USA Department of Social and Behavioral
Sciences, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, USA. (2)Department of
Communication, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, USA.
(3)Department of Communication Studies, Northeastern University, Boston, USA.
(4)Stanford University, Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford, USA.

OBJECTIVES: E-cigarettes are frequently advertised and portrayed in the media as
less harmful compared with regular cigarettes. Earlier surveys reported public
perceptions of harms to people using e-cigarettes; however, public perceptions of
harms from exposure to secondhand vapour (SHV) have not been studied. We examined
associations between self-reported exposure to e-cigarette advertising, media
coverage, and interpersonal discussion and perceived harms of SHV.
DESIGN: Observational study.
SETTING: National online sample of US adults aged ≥18 years.
PARTICIPANTS: 1449 US adults (mean age 49.5 years), 51.3% female, 76.6%
non-Hispanic Caucasian, 7.5% African-American, 10.0% Hispanic and 5.9% other
races.
OUTCOMES: Perceived harm measures included (1) harmfulness of SHV to one’s
health, (2) concern about health impact of breathing SHV and (3) comparative harm
of SHV versus secondhand smoke (SHS). Predictors were (1) self-reported frequency
of exposure to e-cigarette advertising, media coverage and interpersonal
discussion (close friends or family) and (2) perceived valence of exposure from
each source. Covariates were demographic characteristics, cigarette smoking
status and e-cigarette use, and were weighted to the general US adult population.
RESULTS: More frequent interpersonal discussion was associated with lower
perceived harmfulness of SHV to one’s health and lower perceived comparative harm
of SHV versus SHS. Frequency of e-cigarette ad and other media exposure were not
significant predictors. Perceived negative valence of ad exposure and
interpersonal discussion (vs no exposure) was associated with higher perceived
harm across all three outcomes, while negative valence of media coverage was
associated with higher concern about health impact of breathing SHV. Perceived
positive valence (vs no exposure) of interpersonal discussion was associated with
lower perceived harm across all three outcomes about health impact of breathing
SHV.
CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to information about e-cigarettes through advertising,
media coverage and interpersonal discussion could play a role in shaping public
perceptions of the harmfulness of SHV.

Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not
already granted under a licence) please go to
http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

PMCID: PMC4386241
PMID: 25814497 [PubMed – in process]
34. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Mar 24;12(4):3439-52. doi:
10.3390/ijerph120403439.

Nicotine levels and presence of selected tobacco-derived toxins in tobacco
flavoured electronic cigarette refill liquids.

Farsalinos KE(1,)(2), Gillman IG(3), Melvin MS(4), Paolantonio AR(5), Gardow
WJ(6), Humphries KE(7), Brown SE(8), Poulas K(9), Voudris V(10).

Author information:
(1)Department of Cardiology, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Kallithea 17674,
Greece. kfarsalinos@gmail.com. (2)Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras,
Rio 26500, Greece. kfarsalinos@gmail.com. (3)Enthalpy Analytical Inc., Durham NC
27713, USA. Gene.Gillman@enthalpy.com. (4)Enthalpy Analytical Inc., Durham NC
27713, USA. MMelvin@lortobco.com. (5)Enthalpy Analytical Inc., Durham NC 27713,
USA. Amelia.Paolantonio@enthalpy.com. (6)Enthalpy Analytical Inc., Durham NC
27713, USA. Wendy.Gardow@enthalpy.com. (7)Enthalpy Analytical Inc., Durham NC
27713, USA. Kathy.Humphries@enthalpy.com. (8)Enthalpy Analytical Inc., Durham NC
27713, USA. Sherri.Brown@enthalpy.com. (9)Department of Pharmacy, University of
Patras, Rio 26500, Greece. kpoulas@otenet.gr. (10)Department of Cardiology,
Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Kallithea 17674, Greece. vvoudris@otenet.gr.

BACKGROUND: Some electronic cigarette (EC) liquids of tobacco flavour contain
extracts of cured tobacco leaves produced by a process of solvent extraction and
steeping. These are commonly called Natural Extract of Tobacco (NET) liquids. The
purpose of the study was to evaluate nicotine levels and the presence of
tobacco-derived toxins in tobacco-flavoured conventional and NET liquids.
METHODS: Twenty-one samples (10 conventional and 11 NET liquids) were obtained
from the US and Greek market. Nicotine levels were measured and compared with
labelled values. The levels of tobacco-derived chemicals were compared with
literature data on tobacco products.
RESULTS: Twelve samples had nicotine levels within 10% of the labelled value.
Inconsistency ranged from -21% to 22.1%, with no difference observed between
conventional and NET liquids. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) were present
in all samples at ng/mL levels. Nitrates were present almost exclusively in NET
liquids. Acetaldehyde was present predominantly in conventional liquids while
formaldehyde was detected in almost all EC liquids at trace levels. Phenols were
present in trace amounts, mostly in NET liquids. Total TSNAs and nitrate, which
are derived from the tobacco plant, were present at levels 200-300 times lower in
1 mL of NET liquids compared to 1 gram of tobacco products.
CONCLUSIONS: NET liquids contained higher levels of phenols and nitrates, but
lower levels of acetaldehyde compared to conventional EC liquids. The lower
levels of tobacco-derived toxins found in NET liquids compared to tobacco
products indicate that the extraction process used to make these products did not
transfer a significant amount of toxins to the NET. Overall, all EC liquids
contained far lower (by 2-3 orders of magnitude) levels of the tobacco-derived
toxins compared to tobacco products.

PMID: 25811768 [PubMed – in process]
35. Am J Addict. 2015 Apr;24(3):233-9. doi: 10.1111/ajad.12206. Epub 2015 Mar 24.

Electronic cigarettes in adults in outpatient substance use treatment: Awareness,
perceptions, use, and reasons for use.

Peters EN(1), Harrell PT, Hendricks PS, O’Grady KE, Pickworth WB, Vocci FJ.

Author information:
(1)Battelle Memorial Institute, Health and Analytics, Baltimore, MD; Department
of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Most studies on e-cigarettes have come from
population-based surveys. The current research aimed to provide initial data on
e-cigarette awareness, perceptions, use, and reasons for use among adults seeking
substance use treatment.
METHODS: A survey was conducted among 198 participants ≥18 years old in a
community-based outpatient substance use treatment program.
RESULTS: Of the 198 participants, 69% currently smoked cigarettes, 92% were aware
of e-cigarettes, and 58% had ever used e-cigarettes. The proportion of the number
of participants who had ever used e-cigarettes to the number who currently smoked
(89.7%) appeared higher than the corresponding proportion in the 2012-13 National
Adult Tobacco Survey (78.3%). Almost half of the sample who reported ever using
e-cigarettes endorsed quitting or reducing smoking as a reason for use, and 32%
endorsed reasons for use relating to curiosity/experimentation. A greater
likelihood of e-cigarette ever-use was significantly associated with younger age
(adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.94, 95%confidence interval [CI] = 0.90, 0.98) and
perceptions related to using e-cigarettes in public places where smoking
cigarettes is not allowed (AOR = 2.96, 95%CI = 1.18, 7.42) but was not associated
with primary drug of choice.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarette use in adults seeking substance use
treatment appears higher than it is in the US general population of smokers. The
high frequency of use may be due to curiosity/experimentation or attempts to quit
or reduce smoking.
SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Future research may consider how e-cigarettes interact
with other substance use and affect high rates of nicotine and tobacco use in
this population. (Am J Addict 2015;24:233-239).

© American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

PMID: 25809200 [PubMed – in process]
36. J Emerg Med. 2015 Mar 20. pii: S0736-4679(14)01461-9. doi:
10.1016/j.jemermed.2014.12.073. [Epub ahead of print]

Pediatric Exposures to Electronic Cigarettes Reported to Texas Poison Centers.

Forrester MB(1).

Author information:
(1)Department of State Health Services, Austin, Texas.

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette use is increasing. There are concerns that
pediatric exposures to these products may result in serious adverse affects.
OBJECTIVES: This study describes pediatric exposures to electronic cigarettes.
METHODS: Cases were electronic cigarette exposures among patients age 5 years or
less reported to Texas poison centers during January 2010-June 2014. The
distribution by selected variables was determined.
RESULTS: Of 203 exposures, two cases were reported in 2010, five in 2011, 20 in
2012, 70 in 2013, and 106 in January-June 2014. Fifty-one percent of the patients
were male; 32% of the patients were aged 1 year, and 42% were 2 years of age.
Ninety-six percent of the exposures occurred at the patient’s own residence. The
exposure routes were ingestion (93%), dermal (11%), ocular (3%), and inhalation
(2%). Fifty-eight percent of the patients were managed on site. Of the patients
seen at a health care facility, 69% were treated or evaluated and released.
Eleven percent of the exposures were serious. The most commonly reported clinical
effects were vomiting (24%), drowsiness/lethargy (2%), and cough/choke (2%). The
most frequent treatments were dilution/irrigation/wash (65%) and food/snack
(16%).
CONCLUSIONS: Electronic cigarette exposures involving young children reported to
poison centers are increasing. Such exposures are likely to involve patients ages
2-3 years, occur at the child’s own residence, and occur by ingestion. Further
study is needed to determine which subgroups are at risk for serious outcomes and
warrant evaluation at a health care facility.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25802158 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
37. Contact Dermatitis. 2015 Mar 20. doi: 10.1111/cod.12373. [Epub ahead of print]

The electronic cigarette: the new source of nickel contact allergy of the 21st
century?

Maridet C(1), Atge B, Amici JM, Taïeb A, Milpied B.

Author information:
(1)Department of Dermatology, Hôpital Saint-André, CHU Bordeaux, 33075, Bordeaux,
France.

PMID: 25801540 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
38. Rev Med Suisse. 2015 Jan 14;11(456-457):118-9.

[Adolescents and electronic cigarettes].

[Article in French]

Suris JC.

The use of electronic cigarettes (vaping) is increasing among young people and
health professionals feel ill-prepared. This short article provides some
practical information.

PMID: 25799665 [PubMed – in process]
39. Gesundheitswesen. 2015 Mar 23. [Epub ahead of print]

[Position Paper of the German Respiratory Society (DGP) on Electronic Cigarettes
(E-Cigarettes) in Cooperation with the following Scientific Societies and
Organisations: BVKJ, BdP, DGAUM, DGG, DGIM, DGK, DKG, DGSMP, GPP].

[Article in German]

Nowak D(1), Gohlke H(2), Hering T(3), Herth FJ(4), Jany B(5), Raupach T(6), Welte
T(7), Loddenkemper R(8).

Author information:
(1)Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin, Klinikum der Universität München.
(2)Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kardiologie und Deutsche Herzstiftung.
(3)Lungenpraxis Tegel, Berlin. (4)Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin, Thoraxklinik
Heidelberg. (5)Innere Medizin-Pneumologie, Missionsärztliche Klinik Würzburg.
(6)Klinik für Kardiologie und Pneumologie, Universitätsklinikum Göttingen.
(7)Innere Medizin-Pneumologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover. (8)Deutsche
Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin, Berlin.

PMID: 25799478 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
40. Environ Pollut. 2015 Mar 18;202:24-31. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2015.03.008. [Epub
ahead of print]

Particle doses in the pulmonary lobes of electronic and conventional cigarette
users.

Manigrasso M(1), Buonanno G(2), Stabile L(3), Morawska L(4), Avino P(5).

Author information:
(1)DIT, INAIL Settore Ricerca, Certificazione e Verifica, via IV Novembre 144,
00187 Rome, Italy. Electronic address: m.manigrasso@inail.it. (2)Department of
Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, via
Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, Italy; Queensland University of Technology,
Brisbane, Australia. (3)Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering,
University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, Italy.
(4)Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. (5)DIT, INAIL
Settore Ricerca, Certificazione e Verifica, via IV Novembre 144, 00187 Rome,
Italy.

The main aim of the present study was to estimate size segregated doses from
e-cigarette aerosols as a function of the airway generation number in lung lobes.
After a 2-second puff, 7.7 × 10(10) particles (DTot) with a surface area of
3.6 × 10(3) mm(2) (STot), and 3.3 × 10(10) particles with a surface area of
4.2 × 10(3) mm(2) were deposited in the respiratory system for the electronic and
conventional cigarettes, respectively. Alveolar and tracheobronchial deposited
doses were compared to the ones received by non-smoking individuals in Western
countries, showing a similar order of magnitude. Total regional doses (D(R)), in
head and lobar tracheobronchial and alveolar regions, ranged from 2.7 × 10(9) to
1.3 × 10(10) particles and 1.1 × 10(9) to 5.3 × 10(10) particles, for the
electronic and conventional cigarettes, respectively. D(R) in the right-upper
lung lobe was about twice that found in left-upper lobe and 20% greater in
right-lower lobe than the left-lower lobe.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25796074 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
41. Int J Drug Policy. 2015 Feb 23. pii: S0955-3959(15)00043-2. doi:
10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.02.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Prospects for a nicotine-reduction strategy in the cigarette endgame: Alternative
tobacco harm reduction scenarios.

Kozlowski LT(1).

Author information:
(1)University at Buffalo, State University of New York, School of Public Health
and Health Professions, Department of Community Health and Health Behavior,
Buffalo, NY, USA. Electronic address: lk22@buffalo.edu.

Some major national and international tobacco control organisations favour
mandating a reduction in nicotine content of cigarettes to non-addictive levels
as a tobacco control tool. Reducing nicotine content, it is argued, will make
tobacco smoking less attractive. The 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s
regulation of cigarettes appears to have the power to reduce nicotine to
non-addictive levels provided it is not taken to zero. A consideration of the
U.S. context, however, raises doubts about (a) whether this will ever be
practicable and (b), if practicable, how long it will take to implement. Current
versions of the nicotine-reducing strategy propose the systematic, incentivised
use of less harmful nicotine/tobacco products as elements of the mandatory
cigarette nicotine-reduction strategy. Time will tell if and when mandatory
nicotine reduction in tobacco cigarettes will occur and what impact it might have
on smoking prevalence. The question posed here is « Why wait? » Resources used in
implementing reduction in nicotine content have an opportunity cost. In the
meantime, nicotine-maintaining harm reduction strategies can have nearer term
effects on tobacco use as an individual and a public health issue.

Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25795345 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
42. Am J Prev Med. 2015 Mar 7. pii: S0749-3797(15)00035-5. doi:
10.1016/j.amepre.2015.01.015. [Epub ahead of print]

Nicotine and the Developing Human: A Neglected Element in the Electronic
Cigarette Debate.

England LJ(1), Bunnell RE(2), Pechacek TF(2), Tong VT(3), McAfee TA(2).

Author information:
(1)Office on Smoking and Health. Electronic address: lbe9@cdc.gov. (2)Office on
Smoking and Health. (3)Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for
Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia.

The elimination of cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products in the U.S.
would prevent tens of millions of tobacco-related deaths. It has been suggested
that the introduction of less harmful nicotine delivery devices, such as
electronic cigarettes or other electronic nicotine delivery systems, will
accelerate progress toward ending combustible cigarette use. However, careful
consideration of the potential adverse health effects from nicotine itself is
often absent from public health debates. Human and animal data support that
nicotine exposure during periods of developmental vulnerability (fetal through
adolescent stages) has multiple adverse health consequences, including impaired
fetal brain and lung development, and altered development of cerebral cortex and
hippocampus in adolescents. Measures to protect the health of pregnant women and
children are needed and could include (1) strong prohibitions on marketing that
increase youth uptake; (2) youth access laws similar to those in effect for other
tobacco products; (3) appropriate health warnings for vulnerable populations; (4)
packaging to prevent accidental poisonings; (5) protection of non-users from
exposure to secondhand electronic cigarette aerosol; (6) pricing that helps
minimize youth initiation and use; (7) regulations to reduce product addiction
potential and appeal for youth; and (8) the age of legal sale.

Published by Elsevier Inc.

PMID: 25794473 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
43. Lancet. 2015 Mar 14;385(9972):1011-8. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60133-7.

A tobacco-free world: a call to action to phase out the sale of tobacco products
by 2040.

Beaglehole R(1), Bonita R(2), Yach D(3), Mackay J(4), Reddy KS(5).

Author information:
(1)University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:
r.beaglehole@auckland.ac.nz. (2)University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
(3)Vitality Institute (part of Discovery Holdings), New York, USA. (4)World Lung
Foundation, Hong Kong, China. (5)Public Health Foundation of India, Gurgaon,
Haryana, India.

The time has come for the world to acknowledge the unacceptability of the damage
being done by the tobacco industry and work towards a world essentially free from
the sale (legal and illegal) of tobacco products. A tobacco-free world by 2040,
where less than 5% of the world’s adult population use tobacco, is socially
desirable, technically feasible, and could become politically practical. Three
possible ways forward exist: so-called business-as-usual, with most countries
steadily implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)
provisions; accelerated implementation of the FCTC by all countries; and a
so-called turbo-charged approach that complements FCTC actions with strengthened
UN leadership, full engagement of all sectors, and increased investment in
tobacco control. Only the turbo-charged approach will achieve a tobacco-free
world by 2040 where tobacco is out of sight, out of mind, and out of fashion–yet
not prohibited. The first and most urgent priority is the inclusion of an
ambitious tobacco target in the post-2015 sustainable development health goal.
The second priority is accelerated implementation of the FCTC policies in all
countries, with full engagement from all sectors including the private
sector–from workplaces to pharmacies–and with increased national and global
investment. The third priority is an amendment of the FCTC to include an
ambitious global tobacco reduction goal. The fourth priority is a UN high-level
meeting on tobacco use to galvanise global action towards the 2040 tobacco-free
world goal on the basis of new strategies, new resources, and new players.
Decisive and strategic action on this bold vision will prevent hundreds of
millions of unnecessary deaths during the remainder of this century and safeguard
future generations from the ravages of tobacco use.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25784348 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
44. Pediatrics. 2015 Apr;135(4):734-747. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

State-of-the-Art Office-Based Interventions to Eliminate Youth Tobacco Use: The
Past Decade.

Pbert L(1), Farber H(2), Horn K(3), Lando HA(4), Muramoto M(5), O’Loughlin J(6),
Tanski S(7), Wellman RJ(8), Winickoff JP(9), Klein JD(10); American Academy of
Pediatrics, Julius B. Richmond Center of Excellence Tobacco Consortium.

Author information:
(1)Department of Medicine; and Lori.Pbert@umassmed.edu. (2)Department of
Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston,
Texas; (3)Department of Prevention and Community Health, The George Washington
University, Washington, District of Columbia; (4)Division of Epidemiology,
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; (5)Department of Family and
Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona;
(6)Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montreal,
Montreal, Quebec, Canada; (7)Department of Pediatrics, Geisel School of Medicine,
Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire; (8)Department of Family Medicine and
Community Health University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester,
Massachusetts; (9)Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston,
Massachusetts; and. (10)Julius B. Richmond Center of Excellence, American Academy
of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, Illinois.

Tobacco use and tobacco smoke exposure are among the most important preventable
causes of premature disease, disability, and death and therefore constitute a
major pediatric health concern. The pediatric primary care setting offers
excellent opportunities to prevent tobacco use in youth and to deliver
cessation-related treatment to youth and parents who use tobacco. This report
updates a « state-of-the-art » article published a decade ago on office-based
interventions to address these issues. Since then there has been marked progress
in understanding the nature, onset, and trajectories of tobacco use and nicotine
addiction in youth with implications for clinical practice. In addition,
clinicians need to remain abreast of emerging nicotine delivery systems, such as
electronic cigarettes, that may influence uptake or continuation of smoking.
Although evidence-based practice guidelines for treating nicotine addiction in
youth are not yet available, research continues to build the evidence base toward
that goal. In the interim, practical guidelines are available to assist
clinicians in addressing nicotine addiction in the pediatric clinical setting.
This article reports current practices in addressing tobacco in pediatric primary
care settings. It reviews our increasing understanding of youth nicotine
addiction, summarizes research efforts on intervention in the past decade and
additional research needed going forward, and provides practical guidelines for
pediatric health care providers to integrate tobacco use prevention and treatment
into their clinical practice. Pediatric providers can and should play an
important role in addressing tobacco use and dependence, both in the youth they
care for and in parents who use tobacco.

Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

PMID: 25780075 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
45. Issue Brief Health Policy Track Serv. 2014 Dec 29:1-96.

Pharmaceuticals and medical devices: FDA oversight.

Thomson Reuters Accelus, Berry MD(1), White RS.

Author information:
(1)Thomson Reuters Accelus

PMID: 25775703 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
46. Addiction. 2015 Apr;110(4):678-9. doi: 10.1111/add.12854.

Commentary on Dawkins et al. (2015): Electronic cigarettes – from smoking
cessation to smoking sensation and back.

Caponnetto P(1), Maglia M, Polosa R.

Author information:
(1)Centro per la Prevenzione e Cura del Tabagismo (CPCT), Azienda
Ospedaliero-Universitaria ‘Policlinico-V. Emanuele’, Catania, Italy; Dipartimento
di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Università di Catania, Catania, Italy.

PMID: 25771692 [PubMed – in process]
47. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Mar 13. pii: ntv056. [Epub ahead of print]

Polytobacco Use Among College Students.

Butler KM(1), Ickes MJ(2), Rayens MK(3), Wiggins AT(3), Hahn EJ(4).

Author information:
(1)College of Nursing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY;
karen.butler@uky.edu. (2)Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, College
of Education, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY; (3)College of Nursing,
University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY; (4)Colleges of Nursing and Public Health,
University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.

INTRODUCTION: Use of more than one tobacco product among college students is
increasing in popularity, leading to nicotine addiction and additional health
risks. The study (1) examined polytobacco use patterns among college students who
had ever used tobacco; and (2) assessed the sociodemographic and personal factors
associated with current polytobacco use, compared to current single product use
and former tobacco use among college students.
METHODS: Of 10 000 randomly selected college students from a large public
university in the Southeast, a sample of 1593 students age 18 or older completed
an online survey assessing tobacco use and attitudes. Ever tobacco users were
included in this study (n = 662, or 41.6% of survey completers).
RESULTS: About 15% of ever users reported current polytobacco use, and more than
70% of polytobacco users smoked cigars, little cigars, or clove cigarettes in
combination with one or more products. Cigarettes were the most commonly-used
product among single users, followed by hookah. Males, underclassmen, and
students with greater acceptance of cigarette use were more likely to be
polytobacco users. Race/ethnicity was marginally related to polyuse status, with
white/non-Hispanics 28% less likely to be polytobacco users versus single product
users.
CONCLUSIONS: Polytobacco users were more likely than single users to consume
emerging tobacco products, (ie, hookah and electronic cigarettes). Males,
underclassmen, and racial/ethnic minorities were more at risk for polytobacco
use. As young people are particularly prone to nicotine addiction, there is a
need to further investigate polytobacco use among college students.

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society
for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions,
please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

PMID: 25770131 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
48. Thorax. 2015 Apr;70(4):309-10. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-206935.

Electronic cigarettes: pro.

Britton J.

PMID: 25766687 [PubMed – in process]
49. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Apr;17(4):473-8. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntu232.

Nicotine concentrations with electronic cigarette use: effects of sex and flavor.

Oncken CA(1), Litt MD(2), McLaughlin LD(3), Burki NA(3).

Author information:
(1)Department of Medicine and Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of
Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT; oncken@nso2.uchc.edu. (2)Department of
Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences and Department of Psychiatry, University of
Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT; (3)Department of Medicine, University
of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT.

INTRODUCTION: This study examined overall changes in nicotine concentrations when
using a popular e-cigarette and 18mg/mL nicotine e-Juice, and it further explored
effects of sex and flavorings on these concentrations.
METHODS: We recruited nontreatment-seeking smokers who were willing to try
e-cigarettes for 2 weeks and abstain from cigarette smoking. Subjects were
randomized to either menthol tobacco or non-menthol tobacco-flavored e-cigarette
use for 7-10 days, and the next week they were crossed over to the other
condition. On the last day of e-cigarette use of each flavor, subjects completed
a laboratory session in which they used the e-cigarette for 5min ad libitum.
Nicotine concentrations were obtained 5min before and 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30min
after the onset of e-cigarette use.
RESULTS: Twenty subjects completed at least 1 monitoring session. Nicotine
concentrations significantly increased from baseline to 5min by 4ng/mL at the
first laboratory session (p < .01) and by 5.1ng/mL at the second laboratory
session (p < .01). Combining sessions, there were no main effects of sex or
preferred flavor (based on smoking history) on changes in nicotine
concentrations. After adding preferred flavor, sex, and visit order to the model,
there was a significant preferred flavor by sex interaction (p < .01), such that
women who received nonpreferred flavors had lower nicotine concentrations and
rated their e-cigarette as less likeable (p < .01).
CONCLUSION: We found nicotine concentrations significantly increase after
e-cigarette use for 5min, and flavor may impact nicotine concentrations with
e-cigarette use in women.

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society
for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions,
please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

PMID: 25762758 [PubMed – in process]
50. Health Commun. 2015 Mar 11:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]

Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge,
Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?

Maloney EK(1), Cappella JN.

Author information:
(1)a Annenberg School for Communication , University of Pennsylvania.

Visual depictions of vaping in electronic cigarette advertisements may serve as
smoking cues to smokers and former smokers, increasing urge to smoke and smoking
behavior, and decreasing self-efficacy, attitudes, and intentions to quit or
abstain. After assessing baseline urge to smoke, 301 daily smokers, 272
intermittent smokers, and 311 former smokers were randomly assigned to view three
e-cigarette commercials with vaping visuals (the cue condition) or without vaping
visuals (the no-cue condition), or to answer unrelated media use questions (the
no-ad condition). Participants then answered a posttest questionnaire assessing
the outcome variables of interest. Relative to other conditions, in the cue
condition, daily smokers reported greater urge to smoke a tobacco cigarette and a
marginally significantly greater incidence of actually smoking a tobacco
cigarette during the experiment. Former smokers in the cue condition reported
lower intentions to abstain from smoking than former smokers in other conditions.
No significant differences emerged among intermittent smokers across conditions.
These data suggest that visual depictions of vaping in e-cigarette commercials
increase daily smokers’ urge to smoke cigarettes and may lead to more actual
smoking behavior. For former smokers, these cues in advertising may undermine
abstinence efforts. Intermittent smokers did not appear to be reactive to these
cues. A lack of significant differences between participants in the no-cue and
no-ad conditions compared to the cue condition suggests that visual depictions of
e-cigarettes and vaping function as smoking cues, and cue reactivity is the
mechanism through which these effects were obtained.

PMID: 25758192 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
51. Gac Sanit. 2015 Mar 7. pii: S0213-9111(15)00018-7. doi:
10.1016/j.gaceta.2015.01.014. [Epub ahead of print]

[Knowledge of electronic cigarettes and their perceived harmfulness among the
adult population in Barcelona (Spain)].

[Article in Spanish]

Martínez-Sánchez JM(1), Fu M(2), Ballbè M(3), Martín-Sánchez JC(4), Saltó E(5),
Fernández E(2).

Author information:
(1)Tobacco Control Unit, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Institut Català
d’Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; Cancer Prevention and
Control Group, Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge – IDIBELL,
L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; Biostatistics Unit, Department of
Basic Sciences, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Sant Cugat del Vallès,
Spain. Electronic address: jmmartinez@iconcologia.net. (2)Tobacco Control Unit,
Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Institut Català d’Oncologia, L’Hospitalet
de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; Cancer Prevention and Control Group, Institut
d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge – IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat,
Barcelona, Spain; Department of Clinical Sciences, Universitat de Barcelona,
Barcelona, Spain. (3)Tobacco Control Unit, Cancer Prevention and Control Program,
Institut Català d’Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; Cancer
Prevention and Control Group, Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge –
IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Clinical
Sciences, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Addictions Unit, Institute
of Neurosciences, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona – IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.
(4)Biostatistics Unit, Department of Basic Sciences, Universitat Internacional de
Catalunya, Sant Cugat del Vallès, Spain. (5)Cancer Prevention and Control Group,
Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge – IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de
Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; Health Plan Directorate, Ministry of Health,
Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Public Health,
Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

OBJECTIVE: To describe knowledge of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and
their perceived harmfulness in the population of Barcelona in 2013-2014.
METHODS: We used participants from a longitudinal study of a representative
sample of the adult population in the city of Barcelona (n=736). The field work
was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014.
RESULTS: Awareness of e-cigarette was 79.2%. The average level of knowledge was
4.4 points out of 10; there were statistically significant differences according
to age, educational level, tobacco consumption, and nicotine dependence. Most
participants had learned about e-cigarettes through traditional media (57.8%).
Nearly half (47.2%) of the participants believed that e-cigarettes are less
harmful than conventional cigarettes.
CONCLUSION: Advertising of e-cigarettes in the media should be regulated because
there is still scarce scientific evidence about the usefulness and harmful
effects of these devices.

Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25757692 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
52. Clin Ter. 2015 Jan-Feb;166(1):32-7. doi: 10.7417/CT.2015.1799.

Electronic cigarette: a threat or an opportunity for public health? State of the
art and future perspectives.

Protano C(1), Di Milia LM(1), Orsi GB(1), Vitali M(1).

Author information:
(1)Department of Public Health and Infectious Disease, « Sapienza » University of
Rome, Italy.

The e-cigarette, also known as e-cig, represents an emerging issue of great
concern for public health. The aim of the present report was to explore the
scientific literature about the use of electronic cigarette (e-cig), with a
particular reference to the features of « toxicological safety », « effectiveness in
overcoming the addiction to smoking the traditional cigarette » and « necessary
research agenda ». The efficacy of e-cig for smoking cessation is uncertain: some
authors found that it can be a valid support, but long-term cessation rate has
not be assessed. Other studies evidenced that e-cig is often used not for
quitting smoking but to avoid smoking ban for traditional cigarettes and, even,
some researches evidenced that it appears to contribute to nicotine addiction.
E-cig smoking seems to be less dangerous of conventional cigarettes, but its use
is not risk-free. Besides, cases of accidental or intentional poisoning with
liquid solutions of e-cig have been reported. Also, the smoke of e-cig decreases
indoor air quality, releasing particulate matter and other toxics that can
persist on surfaces for days and generating passive exposure. These phenomena are
similar to environmental tobacco smoke produced by conventional smoking, that is
the sum of second- and third-hand smoke. We propose to call them « environmental
electronic smoke », « electronic-second- hand smoke » and « electronic-third-hand
smoke », respectively. Uncertainties relating to e-cig features determined the
sequence, in the short term, of warnings and regulations approved and then
replaced. In conclusion, although in recent years many researches were performed,
evidences is limited and there is a need to study in deep all these issues.

PMID: 25756258 [PubMed – in process]
53. Hawaii J Med Public Health. 2015 Feb;74(2):66-70.

Insights in Public Health Electronic Cigarettes: Marketing to Hawai’i’s
Adolescents.

Williams RJ(1), Knight R(1).

Author information:
(1)Office of Public Health Studies, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI
(RJW).

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an emerging phenomenon that is becoming
increasingly popular among adolescents. Current e-cigarette use among adolescents
has more than doubled in the past few years nationally and more than tripled in
Hawai’i, despite the fact that safety in terms of health and injury from use is
widely unknown. The use of e-cigarettes among adolescents is of particular
concern because they may act as a gateway to smoking conventional tobacco
cigarettes, substitute for cigarettes where smoking would normally not be
allowed, and weaken the effect of clean air policies, and displace effective
smoking cessation treatments. Additionally, the use of e-cigarettes may lead to
the use of conventional cigarettes. There is special concern that e-cigarette
companies are recruiting adolescents who would not have otherwise tried smoking
by using tactics such as offering e-cigarettes in attractive flavorings and using
the same successful strategies to market their product as tobacco companies have
used for conventional cigarettes in past decades. It has been shown that exposure
to cigarette marketing is related to initiation and progression in adolescent
smoking. Yet, there remains no regulation on the marketing of e-cigarettes to
adolescents. It can be extrapolated that expanded regulation that includes limits
on the marketing of e-cigarettes may help decrease use among adolescents and
prevent the possible increase of smoking rates.

PMCID: PMC4338570
PMID: 25755916 [PubMed – in process]
54. Pneumologie. 2015 Mar;69(3):131-4. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1391491. Epub 2015 Mar 9.

[Position paper of the German Respiratory Society (DGP) on electronic cigarettes
(E-cigarettes) in cooperation with the following scientific societies and
organisations: BVKJ, BdP, DGAUM, DGG, DGIM, DGK, DKG, DGSMP, GPP].

[Article in German]

Nowak D(1), Gohlke H(2), Hering T(3), Herth FJ(4), Jany B(5), Raupach T(6), Welte
T(7), Loddenkemper R(8).

Author information:
(1)Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin, Klinikum der Universität München.
(2)Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kardiologie und Deutsche Herzstiftung.
(3)Lungenpraxis Tegel, Berlin. (4)Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin, Thoraxklinik
Heidelberg. (5)Innere Medizin-Pneumologie, Missionsärztliche Klinik Würzburg.
(6)Klinik für Kardiologie und Pneumologie, Universitätsklinikum Göttingen.
(7)Innere Medizin-Pneumologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover. (8)Deutsche
Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin, Berlin.

PMID: 25751070 [PubMed – in process]
55. Addict Behav. 2015 Jun;45:259-62. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.02.015. Epub 2015
Feb 21.

Quit_line treatment protocols for users of non-cigarette tobacco and nicotine
containing products.

Linde BD(1), Ebbert JO(2), Wayne Talcott G(1), Klesges RC(1).

Author information:
(1)Department of Preventive Medicine, Center for Population Sciences, University
of Tennessee Health Science Center, 66 N Pauline, Suite 467, Memphis, TN 38163,
USA. (2)Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic
address: ebbert.jon@mayo.edu.

INTRODUCTION: Use of non-cigarette tobacco and nicotine containing products
(TNCPs) is increasing in the US. Telephone tobacco quit lines (QLs) are one of
the most widely disseminated tools for providing cessation services to cigarette
smokers, but the range of QL treatment services offered to non-cigarette TNCP
users needs to be determined.
METHODS: We surveyed QLs across 50 US states, Washington D.C., and Guam for the
number of treatment protocols offered, products they were intended to treat, and
how telephone counselors triaged patients reporting the use of non-cigarette
TNCPs.
RESULTS: Thirteen organizations provided US QL interventions of which eleven
agreed to be interviewed regarding their treatment services (84.6%). Seven of the
eleven QL providers (63.6%) used a single intervention protocol adapted to the
type of non-cigarette TNCP used. Two of the eleven QLs (18.2%) referred hookah
users to another provider and one QL (9.1%) referred electronic cigarette users
to third party resources for cessation support; otherwise a single intervention
protocol was used for all other TNCP users. Only one QL (9.1%) had a specialized
protocol for smokeless tobacco users in addition to a standard protocol for all
other callers.
CONCLUSIONS: QL providers do not have access to tailored protocols for
non-cigarette TNCP users, and it remains uncertain whether a common tobacco
protocol will be efficacious for these users. Future research should both
validate potential common protocols for non-cigarette TNCP users and address the
need for and the development of specialized QL interventions for TNCP users to
help them quit.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25746358 [PubMed – in process]
56. Waste Manag. 2015 May;39:57-62. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2015.02.005. Epub 2015 Mar
4.

Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

Krause MJ(1), Townsend TG(2).

Author information:
(1)Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, 220
Black Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. (2)Department of Environmental
Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, 220 Black Hall, Gainesville, FL
32611, USA. Electronic address: ttown@ufl.edu.

The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be
classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic
Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a
preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette
products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste
Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and
40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested
in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC)
hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form,
e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products
(CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous
waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation,
there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation.
Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice
solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal.
Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of
nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small
size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than
typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25746178 [PubMed – in process]
57. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015 Mar 5;107(3). pii: djv070. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djv070.
Print 2015 Mar.

Electronic cigarettes may lead to nicotine addiction.

Fillon M.

PMID: 25745015 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
58. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Mar 5. pii: ntv052. [Epub ahead of print]

Factors Associated With Electronic Cigarette Users’ Device Preferences and
Transition From First Generation to Advanced Generation Devices.

Yingst JM(1), Veldheer S(2), Hrabovsky S(2), Nichols TT(3), Wilson SJ(3), Foulds
J(2).

Author information:
(1)Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State University College of
Medicine, Hershey, PA; jyingst@phs.psu.edu. (2)Department of Public Health
Sciences, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA; (3)Department
of Psychology, Penn State University, State College, PA.

INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are becoming increasingly popular
but little is known about how e-cig users’ transition between the different
device types and what device characteristics and preferences may influence the
transition.
METHODS: Four thousand four hundred twenty-one experienced e-cig users completed
an online survey about their e-cig use, devices, and preferences. Participants
included in analysis were ever cigarette smokers who used an e-cig at least 30
days in their lifetime and who reported the type of their first and current e-cig
device and the nicotine concentration of their liquid. Analyses focused on
transitions between « first generation » devices (same size as a cigarette with no
button) and « advanced generation » devices (larger than a cigarette with a manual
button) and differences between current users of each device type.
RESULTS: Most e-cig users (n = 2603, 58.9%) began use with a first generation
device, and of these users, 63.7% subsequently transitioned to current use of an
advanced generation device. Among users who began use with an advanced generation
device (n = 1818, 41.1%), only 5.7% transitioned to a first generation device.
Seventy-seven percent of current advanced generation e-cig users switched to
their current device in order to obtain a « more satisfying hit. » Battery
capabilities and liquid flavor choices also influenced device choice.
CONCLUSION: E-cig users commonly begin use with a device shaped like a cigarette
and transition to a larger device with a more powerful battery, a button for
manual activation and a wider choice of liquid flavors.

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society
for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions,
please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

PMID: 25744966 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
59. Addict Behav. 2015 Jun;45:245-51. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.02.006. Epub 2015
Feb 20.

The prevalence, correlates and reasons for using electronic cigarettes among New
Zealand adults.

Li J(1), Newcombe R(2), Walton D(3).

Author information:
(1)Health Promotion Agency, P.O. Box 2142, Wellington 6140, New Zealand.
Electronic address: j.li@hpa.org.nz. (2)Health Promotion Agency, P.O. Box 2142,
Wellington 6140, New Zealand. Electronic address: r.newcombe@hpa.org.nz.
(3)Health Promotion Agency, P.O. Box 2142, Wellington 6140, New Zealand;
University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand.
Electronic address: d.walton@hpa.org.nz.

INTRODUCTION: There is strong interest in the use of electronic cigarettes
(e-cigarettes) globally. This paper is the first to report population-based data
on ever-use and current use of e-cigarettes among New Zealand adults. The paper
also extends previous international studies by exploring the reasons for trying
e-cigarettes, ever users’ recall of brand(s) they have ever tried, and current
users’ recall of their current brand.
METHODS: The Health and Lifestyles Survey (HLS) is a biennial face-to-face
in-house survey of New Zealand adults aged 15years or over. In 2014, 2594
participants completed the survey.
RESULTS: Ever-use and current use of e-cigarettes were 13.1% and 0.8%
respectively. Tobacco smoking status predicted the use of e-cigarettes, with
current smokers reporting the highest rate of use (50% ever-use and 4% current
use). Among current smokers who had tried an e-cigarette, curiosity (49%) and
desire to quit smoking (37%) were the most common reasons for trying. About half
of the ever-users could not name any of the brand(s) they had ever tried, and
one-fifth of current users could not name their current brand.
CONCLUSIONS: Compared with other countries, New Zealand has a high rate of
ever-use. Among current smokers, one in two had tried an e-cigarette. However,
progression to regular use appears to be rare. The finding that 18% of current
e-cigarette users could not name their current brand highlights the importance of
investigating users’ knowledge of e-cigarettes in general and assessing the
factors that influence brand choice such as advertising, price, and
accessibility.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25744712 [PubMed – in process]
60. Mayo Clin Proc. 2015 Mar;90(3):417-8. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.12.018.

In reply–Electronic cigarettes are efficacious.

Kotz D(1), Brown J(2), West R(2).

Author information:
(1)CAPHRI School for Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht University
Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Cancer Research UK Health Behaviour
Research Centre, University College, London, United Kingdom. (2)Cancer Research
UK Health Behaviour Research Centre, University College, London, United Kingdom.

Comment on
Mayo Clin Proc. 2015 Mar;90(3):416-7.
Mayo Clin Proc. 2014 Oct;89(10):1360-7.

PMID: 25744122 [PubMed – in process]
61. Mayo Clin Proc. 2015 Mar;90(3):416-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.12.021.

Electronic cigarettes are efficacious.

Sklaroff RB(1), Godshall WT(2).

Author information:
(1)Department of Medicine, Nazareth Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. (2)Smokefree
Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, PA.

Comment in
Mayo Clin Proc. 2015 Mar;90(3):417-8.

Comment on
Mayo Clin Proc. 2014 Oct;89(10):1360-7.
Mayo Clin Proc. 2014 Oct;89(10):1328-30.

PMID: 25744121 [PubMed – in process]
62. J Occup Environ Med. 2015 Mar;57(3):334-43. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000000420.

Guidance to employers on integrating e-cigarettes/electronic nicotine delivery
systems into tobacco worksite policy.

Whitsel LP(1), Benowitz N, Bhatnagar A, Bullen C, Goldstein F, Matthias-Gray L,
Grossmeier J, Harris J, Isaac F, Loeppke R, Manley M, Moseley K, Niemiec T,
OʼBrien V, Palma-Davis L, Pronk N, Pshock J, Stave GM, Terry P.

Author information:
(1)From the American Heart Association (Dr Whitsel), Washington, DC; University
of California (Dr Benowitz), San Francisco; The University of Louisville (Dr
Bhatnagar), Louisville, Ky; University of Auckland (Dr Bullen), Auckland, New
Zealand; Population Health Alliance (Mr Goldstein), Washington, DC; University of
Michigan (Ms Matthias-Gray and Ms Palma-Davis), Ann Arbor; Health Enhancement
Research Organization (Dr Grossmeier), Edina, Minn; Performance pH (Mr Harris),
Holland, Ohio; Johnson & Johnson (Dr Isaac); US Preventive Medicine/American
College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Dr Loeppke), Elk Grove
Village, Ill; American College of Preventive Medicine (Dr Manley), Washington,
DC; Health Enhancement Research Organization, Population Health Alliance (Ms
Moseley), Edina, Minn; ArcelorMittal/American College of Occupational and
Environmental Medicine (Dr Niemiec), Elk Grove Village, Ill; Interactive Health
(Mr O’Brien); HealthPartners/Harvard University (Dr Pronk); Bravo Wellness (Mr
Pshock), Cleveland, Ohio; Prevention Partners/American College of Occupational
and Environmental Medicine/Duke University (Dr Stave), Durham, NC; and StayWell
Health Management (Dr Terry), Saint Paul, Minn.

In recent years, new products have entered the marketplace that complicate
decisions about tobacco control policies and prevention in the workplace. These
products, called electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or electronic nicotine
delivery systems, most often deliver nicotine as an aerosol for inhalation,
without combustion of tobacco. This new mode of nicotine delivery raises several
questions about the safety of the product for the user, the effects of secondhand
exposure, how the public use of these products should be handled within
tobacco-free and smoke-free air policies, and how their use affects tobacco
cessation programs, wellness incentives, and other initiatives to prevent and
control tobacco use. In this article, we provide a background on e-cigarettes and
then outline key policy recommendations for employers on how the use of these new
devices should be managed within worksite tobacco prevention programs and control
policies.

PMID: 25742539 [PubMed – in process]
63. Am J Health Behav. 2015 May;39(3):421-32. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.39.3.14.

Conditional risk assessment of adolescents’ electronic cigarette perceptions.

Chaffee BW(1), Gansky SA(2), Halpern-Felsher B(2), Couch ET(2), Essex G(2), Walsh
MM(3).

Author information:
(1)University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
benjamin.chaffee@ucsf.edu. (2)University of California San Francisco, San
Francisco, CA, USA. (3)Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

OBJECTIVES: To adapt an established instrument for measuring adolescents’
cigarette-related perceptions for new application with electronic cigarettes
(e-cigarettes).
METHODS: In this exploratory study, 104 male high school students (40% tobacco
ever-users) estimated the probability of potential e-cigarette risks (eg, lung
cancer) or benefits (eg, look cool). We calculated associations between
risk/benefit composite scores, ever-use, and use intention for e-cigarettes, and
analogously, for combustible cigarettes.
RESULTS: E-cigarette ever-use was associated with lower perceived risks, with
adjusted differences versus never-users greater for e-cigarettes than for
cigarettes. Risk composite score was inversely associated, and benefit score
positively associated, with e-cigarette ever-use and use intention.
CONCLUSION: Conditional risk assessment characterized adolescents’ perceived
e-cigarette risk/benefit profile, with potential utility for risk-perception
measurement in future studies.

PMCID: PMC4351787 [Available on 2016-05-01]
PMID: 25741686 [PubMed – in process]
64. Eur Heart J. 2015 Jan 14;36(3):137.

Electronic cigarettes: the pulmonologist’s point of view.

Kohler M.

PMID: 25741553 [PubMed – in process]
65. Eur Heart J. 2015 Jan 14;36(3):135-6.

Advising patients about electronic cigarettes.

Rigotti NA, Wu M.

PMID: 25741552 [PubMed – in process]
66. Cancer. 2015 Mar 4. doi: 10.1002/cncr.29307. [Epub ahead of print]

Discrepant results for smoking and cessation among electronic cigarette users.

Rodu B(1), Plurphanswat N, Phillips CV.

Author information:
(1)Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Louisville,
Louisville, Kentucky.

PMID: 25740231 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
67. Cancer. 2015 Mar 4. doi: 10.1002/cncr.29306. [Epub ahead of print]

Reply to discrepant results for smoking and cessation among electronic cigarette
users.

Borderud SP(1), Li Y, Burkhalter JE, Sheffer CE, Ostroff JS.

Author information:
(1)Behavioral Sciences Service, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences,
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

PMID: 25740086 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
68. Am J Med. 2015 Feb 27. pii: S0002-9343(15)00165-5. doi:
10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.01.033. [Epub ahead of print]

Electronic Cigarettes-A Narrative Review for Clinicians.

Orellana-Barrios MA(1), Payne D(2), Mulkey Z(2), Nugent K(2).

Author information:
(1)Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center,
Lubbock. Electronic address: menfil@gmail.com. (2)Department of Internal
Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock.

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were introduced into the US market in 2007
and have quickly become a popular source of nicotine for many patients. They are
designed to simulate smoking by heating a nicotine-containing solution producing
an aerosol that the user inhales. The short- and long-term effects of e-cigarette
use are still unclear, but their use is increasing. Some acute effects of
e-cigarettes on heart rate, blood pressure, and airway resistance are reported.
Although there are some reports of improved cessation in a subset of users, there
are also studies reporting decreased cessation in dual users of regular and
e-cigarettes. Additionally, there is no current regulation of these devices, and
this allows virtually anyone with a form of online payment to obtain them.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25731134 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
69. JAMA Pediatr. 2015 Mar;169(3):e1563. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.63. Epub
2015 Mar 2.

Electronic cigarette sales to minors via the internet.

Williams RS(1), Derrick J(2), Ribisl KM(3).

Author information:
(1)Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel
Hill2Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill. (2)Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of
North Carolina, Chapel Hill. (3)Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center,
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill3Department of Health Behavior, Gillings
School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

IMPORTANCE: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) entered the US market in 2007
and, with little regulatory oversight, grew into a $2-billion-a-year industry by
2013. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported a trend of
increasing e-cigarette use among teens, with use rates doubling from 2011 to
2012. While several studies have documented that teens can and do buy cigarettes
online, to our knowledge, no studies have yet examined age verification among
Internet tobacco vendors selling e-cigarettes.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which minors can successfully purchase
e-cigarettes online and assess compliance with North Carolina’s 2013 e-cigarette
age-verification law.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this cross-sectional study conducted from
February 2014 to June 2014, 11 nonsmoking minors aged 14 to 17 years made
supervised e-cigarette purchase attempts from 98 Internet e-cigarette vendors.
Purchase attempts were made at the University of North Carolina Internet Tobacco
Vendors Study project offices using credit cards.
MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Rate at which minors can successfully purchase
e-cigarettes on the Internet.
RESULTS: Minors successfully received deliveries of e-cigarettes from 76.5% of
purchase attempts, with no attempts by delivery companies to verify their ages at
delivery and 95% of delivered orders simply left at the door. All delivered
packages came from shipping companies that, according to company policy or
federal regulation, do not ship cigarettes to consumers. Of the total orders, 18
failed for reasons unrelated to age verification. Only 5 of the remaining 80
youth purchase attempts were rejected owing to age verification, resulting in a
youth buy rate of 93.7%. None of the vendors complied with North Carolina’s
e-cigarette age-verification law.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Minors are easily able to purchase e-cigarettes from
the Internet because of an absence of age-verification measures used by Internet
e-cigarette vendors. Federal law should require and enforce rigorous age
verification for all e-cigarette sales as with the federal PACT (Prevent All
Cigarette Trafficking) Act’s requirements for age verification in Internet
cigarette sales.

PMID: 25730697 [PubMed – in process]
70. Prescrire Int. 2015 Jan;24(156):21.

Electronic cigarettes: poisoning in children.

[No authors listed]

PMID: 25729833 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
71. Int J Drug Policy. 2015 Jan 31. pii: S0955-3959(15)00021-3. doi:
10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.01.018. [Epub ahead of print]

Harm reduction in U.S. tobacco control: Constructions in textual news media.

Eversman MH(1).

Author information:
(1)Department of Social Work, Rutgers University – Newark, Newark, NJ 07102,
United States. Electronic address: m.eversman@rutgers.edu.

BACKGROUND: U.S. tobacco control has long emphasized abstinence, yet quitting
smoking is hard and cessation rates low. Tobacco harm reduction alternatives
espouse substituting cigarettes with safer nicotine and tobacco products. Policy
shifts embracing tobacco harm reduction have increased media attention, yet it
remains controversial. Discourse theory posits language as fluid, and socially
constructed meaning as neither absolute nor neutral, elevating certain views over
others while depicting « discursive struggle » between them. While an
abstinence-based framework dominates tobacco policy, discourse theory suggests
constructions of nicotine and tobacco use can change, for example by positioning
tobacco harm reduction more favorably.
METHODS: Textual discourse analysis was used to explore constructions of tobacco
harm reduction in 478 (308 original) U.S. textual news media articles spanning
1996-2014. Using keyword database sampling, retrieved articles were analyzed
first as discrete recording units and then to identify emergent thematic content.
RESULTS: Constructions of tobacco harm reduction shifted over this time,
revealing tension among industry and policy interests through competing
definitions of tobacco harm reduction, depictions of its underlying science, and
accounts of regulatory matters including tobacco industry support for harm
reduction and desired marketing and taxation legislation.
CONCLUSIONS: Heightened salience surrounding tobacco harm reduction and
electronic cigarettes suggests their greater acceptance in U.S. tobacco control.
Various media depictions construct harm reduction as a temporary means to
cessation, and conflict with other constructions of it that place no subjective
value on continued « safer » tobacco/nicotine use. Constructions of science largely
obscure claims of the veracity of tobacco harm reduction, with conflict
surrounding appropriate public health benchmarks for tobacco policy and health
risks of nicotine use. Taxation policies and e-cigarette pricing relative to
cigarettes are key for wider adoption, while concerns are raised for whether
their availability will increase initiation.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25727451 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
72. Am J Prev Med. 2015 Apr;48(4):445-51. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2014.10.026. Epub
2015 Feb 25.

Food and drug administration tobacco regulation and product judgments.

Kaufman AR(1), Finney Rutten LJ(2), Parascandola M(3), Blake KD(4), Augustson
EM(3).

Author information:
(1)Tobacco Control Research Branch. Electronic address: kaufmana@mail.nih.gov.
(2)Mayo Clinic Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health
Care Delivery, Rochester, Minnesota. (3)Tobacco Control Research Branch.
(4)Health Communication and Informatics Research Branch, Behavioral Research
Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer
Institute, Rockville, Maryland.

BACKGROUND: The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act granted the
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the authority to regulate tobacco products in
the U.S. However, little is known about how regulation may be related to
judgments about tobacco product-related risks.
PURPOSE: To understand how FDA tobacco regulation beliefs are associated with
judgments about tobacco product-related risks.
METHODS: The Health Information National Trends Survey is a national survey of
the U.S. adult population. Data used in this analysis were collected from October
2012 through January 2013 (N=3,630) by mailed questionnaire and analyzed in 2013.
Weighted bivariate chi-square analyses were used to assess associations among FDA
regulation belief, tobacco harm judgments, sociodemographics, and smoking status.
A weighted multinomial logistic regression was conducted where FDA regulation
belief was regressed on tobacco product judgments, controlling for
sociodemographic variables and smoking status.
RESULTS: About 41% believed that the FDA regulates tobacco products in the U.S.,
23.6% reported the FDA does not, and 35.3% did not know. Chi-square analyses
showed that smoking status was significantly related to harm judgments about
electronic cigarettes (p<0.0001). The multinomial logistic regression revealed
that uncertainty about FDA regulation was associated with tobacco product harm
judgment uncertainty.
CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco product harm perceptions are associated with beliefs about
tobacco product regulation by the FDA. These findings suggest the need for
increased public awareness and understanding of the role of tobacco product
regulation in protecting public health.

Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

PMID: 25726094 [PubMed – in process]
73. Int J Drug Policy. 2015 Feb 7. pii: S0955-3959(15)00023-7. doi:
10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.01.020. [Epub ahead of print]

Nicotine levels in electronic cigarette refill solutions: A comparative analysis
of products from the US, Korea, and Poland.

Goniewicz ML(1), Gupta R(2), Lee YH(2), Reinhardt S(2), Kim S(3), Kim B(3),
Kosmider L(4), Sobczak A(5).

Author information:
(1)Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY,
United States. Electronic address: maciej.goniewicz@roswellpark.org.
(2)Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY,
United States. (3)Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Soonchunhyang
University, Asan, South Korea. (4)Department of General and Analytical Chemistry,
School of Pharmacy and the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of
Silesia, Sosnowiec, Poland; Department of Chemical Hazards, Institute of
Occupational and Environmental Health, Sosnowiec, Poland. (5)Department of
Chemical Hazards, Institute of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sosnowiec,
Poland.

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes vaporize nicotine dissolved in glycerine and/or
propylene glycol (e-liquid). Due to a lack of regulations, e-liquids may contain
inaccurately labelled nicotine levels. Our aim was to test nicotine levels in
samples of e-liquids from three countries.
METHODS: We measured nicotine concentration in 32, 29 and 30 e-liquids purchased
between 2013 and 2014 from locations in the United States (US), South Korea, and
Poland, respectively.
RESULTS: Nicotine concentration in the US products varied from 0 to 36.6mg/mL.
Traces of nicotine were found in three US products labelled as ‘nicotine free’.
Two-thirds of South Korean products did not contain detectable amounts of
nicotine, whereas nicotine concentration in other products varied from 6.4±0.7 to
150.3±7.9 (labelled as ‘pure nicotine’) mg/mL. In products from Poland, nicotine
concentration varied from 0 to 24.7±0.1mg/mL. Overall, we found significant
discrepancies (>20%) in the labelled nicotine concentrations in 19% of analysed
e-liquids.
CONCLUSION: Most of the analysed samples had no significant discrepancies in
labelled nicotine concentrations and contained low nicotine levels. However some
products labelled as ‘nicotine-free’ had detectable levels of the substance,
suggesting insufficient manufacturing quality control. We identified a single
product labelled as ‘pure nicotine’ which contained significantly higher
concentration of the drug, increasing the risk of accidental poisoning. The study
reveals the need for quality standards of these new nicotine containing products.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25724267 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
74. Int J Drug Policy. 2015 Jan 31. pii: S0955-3959(15)00022-5. doi:
10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.01.019. [Epub ahead of print]

Vapers’ perspectives on electronic cigarette regulation in Australia.

Fraser D(1), Weier M(2), Keane H(3), Gartner C(4).

Author information:
(1)UQ Centre for Clinical Research, The University of Queensland, Herston, QLD
4029, Australia. Electronic address: d.fraser2@uq.edu.au. (2)Faculty of Health
and Behavioural Sciences, Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research, The
University of Queensland, Herston, QLD 4029, Australia. (3)School of Sociology,
College of Arts and Social Sciences, Australian National University, ACT 0200,
Australia. (4)UQ Centre for Clinical Research, The University of Queensland,
Herston, QLD 4029, Australia.

BACKGROUND: The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), also known as
personal vaporisers (PVs), has increased rapidly in Australia despite legal
barriers to the sale, possession and use of nicotine for non-therapeutic
purposes. Australia is one of many countries in the process of developing
regulations for these devices yet knowledge of consumers’ views on e-cigarette
regulation is lacking.
METHODS: An online survey was completed by 705 e-cigarette users recruited
online. Participants answered questions about their smoking history, e-cigarette
use, as well as their opinions on appropriate regulation of e-cigarettes.
RESULTS: Most participants were male (71%), employed (72%), and highly educated
(68% held post-school qualification). They tended to be former heavy smokers who
had stopped smoking entirely and were currently vaping. Participants generally
agreed that the government should enforce minimum labelling and packaging
standards and there was majority support for minimum quality standards. Most
supported making e-cigarettes available for sale to anyone over the age of 18,
but expressed concern about the government’s motivation for regulating
e-cigarettes. There was strong opposition to restricting sales to a medicines
framework (prescription only or pharmacy only sales).
CONCLUSION: E-cigarette users in Australia are in favour of e-cigarettes being
regulated as long as those regulations do not impede their ability to obtain
devices and refill solutions, which they view as important for them to remain
smoke free. These views align with some aspects of appropriate policy designed to
maximise the public health potential of e-cigarettes in society, but conflict
with some of the proposed regulatory models. Governments should consider how
future regulation of e-cigarettes will affect current consumers while helping to
maximise the number of smokers who switch to e-cigarettes and minimise the
possibility of non-smokers becoming addicted to nicotine.

Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25724266 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
75. J Law Med. 2014 Dec;22(2):462-81.

We didn’t start this fireless vapour: e-cigarette legislation in Australia.

Krawitz M.

Electronic cigarettes (or e-cigarettes) are devices that heat a cartridge
containing a solution that becomes a vapour for the user to inhale. The vapour
may or may not contain nicotine. E-cigarettes do not contain tar and other
toxins, which traditional cigarettes do, so they may be less damaging to people’s
health than smoking traditional cigarettes. However, no studies exist about the
long-term effects of using e-cigarettes yet. It is illegal to sell e-cigarettes
with nicotine in Australia, though Australians may import a three-month supply
from overseas. It is legal to sell e-cigarettes with nicotine in some other
jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom and the European Union. This article
argues that the Australian government should consider legalising the sale of
e-cigarettes with nicotine in Australia for health, safety and economic reasons
and to protect youth. If the sale of e-cigarettes with nicotine becomes legal,
the Australian government must strictly regulate it.

PMID: 25715544 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
76. PLoS One. 2015 Feb 23;10(2):e0118344. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118344.
eCollection 2015.

The effects of electronic cigarette emissions on systemic cotinine levels, weight
and postnatal lung growth in neonatal mice.

McGrath-Morrow SA(1), Hayashi M(2), Aherrera A(2), Lopez A(3), Malinina A(4),
Collaco JM(1), Neptune E(4), Klein JD(5), Winickoff JP(6), Breysse P(7), Lazarus
P(8), Chen G(8).

Author information:
(1)Eudowood Division of Pediatric Respiratory Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of
Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; Julius B. Richmond
Center of Excellence, American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village,
Illinois, United States of America. (2)Eudowood Division of Pediatric Respiratory
Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of
America. (3)Eudowood Division of Pediatric Respiratory Sciences, Johns Hopkins
School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; Division of
Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins
School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. (4)Division of
Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins
School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. (5)Julius B.
Richmond Center of Excellence, American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village,
Illinois, United States of America. (6)Julius B. Richmond Center of Excellence,
American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, Illinois, United States of
America; Division of General Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital and
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
(7)Julius B. Richmond Center of Excellence, American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk
Grove Village, Illinois, United States of America; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School
of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. (8)Department of
Pharmacology, Washington State University, Spokane, Washington, United States of
America.

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Electronic cigarette (E-cigarettes) emissions present a
potentially new hazard to neonates through inhalation, dermal and oral contact.
Exposure to nicotine containing E-cigarettes may cause significant systemic
absorption in neonates due to the potential for multi-route exposure. Systemic
absorption of nicotine and constituents of E-cigarette emissions may adversely
impact weight and lung development in the neonate. To address these questions we
exposed neonatal mice to E-cigarette emissions and measured systemic cotinine
levels and alveolar lung growth.
METHODS/MAIN RESULTS: Neonatal mice were exposed to E-cigarettes for the first 10
days of life. E-cigarette cartridges contained either 1.8% nicotine in propylene
glycol (PG) or PG vehicle alone. Daily weights, plasma and urine cotinine levels
and lung growth using the alveolar mean linear intercept (MLI) method were
measured at 10 days of life and compared to room air controls. Mice exposed to
1.8% nicotine/PG had a 13.3% decrease in total body weight compared to room air
controls. Plasma cotinine levels were found to be elevated in neonatal mice
exposed to 1.8% nicotine/PG E-cigarettes (mean 62.34± 3.3 ng/ml). After adjusting
for sex and weight, the nicotine exposed mice were found to have modestly
impaired lung growth by MLI compared to room air control mice (p<.054 trial 1;
p<.006 trial 2). These studies indicate that exposure to E-cigarette emissions
during the neonatal period can adversely impact weight gain. In addition exposure
to nicotine containing E-cigarettes can cause detectable levels of systemic
cotinine, diminished alveolar cell proliferation and a modest impairment in
postnatal lung growth.

PMCID: PMC4338219
PMID: 25706869 [PubMed – in process]
77. J Voice. 2015 Feb 19. pii: S0892-1997(14)00243-4. doi:
10.1016/j.jvoice.2014.10.013. [Epub ahead of print]

Effects of Electronic Nicotine Delivery System on Larynx: Experimental Study.

Salturk Z(1), Çakır Ç(2), Sünnetçi G(3), Atar Y(3), Kumral TL(3), Yıldırım G(3),
Berkiten G(3), Uyar Y(3).

Author information:
(1)Okmeydanı Training and Research Hospital, ENT Clinic, Istanbul, Turkey.
Electronic address: ziyasalturk@gmail.com. (2)Okmeydanı Training and Research
Hospital, Pathology Clinic, Istanbul, Turkey. (3)Okmeydanı Training and Research
Hospital, ENT Clinic, Istanbul, Turkey.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effects of electronic nicotine delivery system
(ENDS) or also termed electronic cigarette vapor on the laryngeal mucosa of rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen female Wistar albino rats were divided into two
groups. The study group was exposed to ENDS vapor for 1 hour/day for 4 weeks. The
control group was not subjected to any chemical or physical stimulus. The vocal
folds of the study and control group rats were evaluated histopathologically by
hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemically by Ki67 staining.
Epithelial distribution, inflammation, hyperplasia, and metaplasia were
evaluated.
RESULTS: Epithelial distribution and inflammation did not differ between the two
groups. Two cases of hyperplasia were detected in the study group but there was
no hyperplasia in the control group. Four cases of metaplasia were detected in
the study group and one case in the control group. Statistical analysis revealed
no significant difference between the study and control groups (P = 0.131 and
0.106, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to ENDS for 4 weeks caused hyperplasia and metaplasia of
the laryngeal mucosa of rats but this was not significant statistically. These
results implemented that further studies with larger cohort and longer duration
are required to evaluate long-term effects.

Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
reserved.

PMID: 25704471 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
78. Int J Drug Policy. 2015 Jan 19. pii: S0955-3959(15)00009-2. doi:
10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.01.006. [Epub ahead of print]

Factors associated with dual use of tobacco and electronic cigarettes: A case
control study.

Farsalinos KE(1), Romagna G(2), Voudris V(3).

Author information:
(1)Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Greece; University of Patras, Greece.
Electronic address: kfarsalinos@gmail.com. (2)ABICH S.r.l, Biological and
Chemical Toxicology Research Laboratory, Italy. (3)Onassis Cardiac Surgery
Center, Greece.

BACKGROUND: Many electronic cigarette (EC) users reduce cigarette consumption
without completely quitting. It is important to assess the characteristics and
experiences of these users, commonly called « dual users », in comparison with EC
users who have completely substituted smoking (non-smoking vapers).
METHODS: A questionnaire was uploaded in an online survey tool. EC users were
invited to participate irrespective of their current smoking status. Dual users
were matched for age and gender with non-smoking vapers.
RESULTS: From 19,441 participants, 3682 were dual users. After random 1:1
matching with non-smoking vapers (all of whom were former smokers), 3530
participants in each group were compared. Dual users had longer smoking history,
lower daily cigarette consumption and similar cigarette dependence compared to
non-smoking vapers. Their daily consumption was reduced after initiation of EC
use from 20 to 4 cigarettes per day. Most of them were using ECs daily, however,
more were occasional EC users compared to non-smoking vapers. Use of advanced
(third generation) devices and daily liquid consumption was lower in dual users
compared to non-smoking vapers. The most important reason for initiating EC use
was to reduce smoking and exposure of family members to smoke for both groups,
but higher scores were given to « avoid smoking ban in public places » by dual
users compared to non-smoking vapers. The strongest predictors of being dual user
from multivariate analysis were: higher risk perception for ECs (OR=2.27, 95%
CI=1.40-3.68), use of first-generation EC devices (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.47-2.66),
use of prefilled cartomizers (OR=1.94, 95% CI=1.23-3.06) and occasional use of
ECs (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.21-2.17).
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case-control study indicate that higher risk
perceptions about, and less frequent use of, ECs was associated with dual use of
ECs and tobacco cigarettes. Since this is a cross-sectional survey, which
explores association but not causation, longitudinal studies are warranted to
further explore the reasons for dual use.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25687714 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
79. J Anal Toxicol. 2015 May;39(4):262-9. doi: 10.1093/jat/bkv002. Epub 2015 Feb 13.

Multicomponent analysis of replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes using
chromatographic techniques.

Kavvalakis MP(1), Stivaktakis PD(1), Tzatzarakis MN(1), Kouretas D(2), Liesivuori
J(3), Alegakis AK(1), Vynias D(4), Tsatsakis AM(5).

Author information:
(1)Center of Toxicology Science & Research, Division of Morphology, Medical
School, University of Crete, Voutes Campus, Heraklion 71003, Crete, Greece.
(2)Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Thessaly, Larissa
41221, Greece. (3)Department of Pharmacology, Drug Development and Therapeutics,
Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland TOXPLUS SA, Spin
off Company, Agiou Fanouriou 1, Nea Alikarnassos 71601, Heraklion 71003, Crete,
Greece. (4)Center of Toxicology Science & Research, Division of Morphology,
Medical School, University of Crete, Voutes Campus, Heraklion 71003, Crete,
Greece TOXPLUS SA, Spin off Company, Agiou Fanouriou 1, Nea Alikarnassos 71601,
Heraklion 71003, Crete, Greece. (5)Center of Toxicology Science & Research,
Division of Morphology, Medical School, University of Crete, Voutes Campus,
Heraklion 71003, Crete, Greece aris@med.uoc.gr.

The electronic cigarette (e-cig) is an invention of the past few years and its
popularity is rapidly growing all over the world. A rapid multicomponent
analytical protocol for the analysis of the replacement liquids (e-liquids) of
e-cig was developed using gas (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC)-mass
spectrometry (MS). GC-MS-based methods were developed for the determination of
the main humectants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). For the
determination and quantification of nicotine (NIC) and nitrosamines, appropriate
LC-MS-based methods were developed. The approbated methods were applied for the
analysis of 263 e-liquid samples obtained from the Greek market. The instruments
response was linear; the limits of quantification ranged from 0.003 μg/mL for
three PAHs to 1.187 μg/mL for glycerol. The precision was <16% for all analytes,
while the mean accuracy ranged from 99.1% for NIC to 106.6% for the flavor
2,5-dimethylpyrazine. The measured concentrations of NIC were correlated with the
theoretical concentrations as reported by the manufacturers. An analog relation
between the concentration of the glycerol and of propylene glycol was noticed.
The frequency of detection of flavors ranged from 30.4% for the methyl
cyclopentenolone to 5.3% for 3.4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde. Nitrosamines and PAHs
were not detected in any sample. Because a similar analytical protocol was not
available from the existing literature so far, our study offers the advantage of
complete analytical methods for rapid and simultaneous multicomponent
identification.

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For
Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

PMID: 25681325 [PubMed – in process]
80. Addiction. 2015 May;110(5):868-74. doi: 10.1111/add.12878.

Biochemically verified smoking cessation and vaping beliefs among vape store
customers.

Tackett AP(1), Lechner WV, Meier E, Grant DM, Driskill LM, Tahirkheli NN, Wagener
TL.

Author information:
(1)Department of Psychology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA;
Oklahoma Tobacco Research Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.

AIMS: To evaluate biochemically verified smoking status and electronic nicotine
delivery systems (ENDS) use behaviors and beliefs among a sample of customers
from vapor stores (stores specializing in ENDS).
DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional survey of 215 adult vapor
store customers at four retail locations in the Midwestern United States; a
subset of participants (n = 181) also completed exhaled carbon monoxide (CO)
testing to verify smoking status.
MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes evaluated included ENDS preferences, harm beliefs, use
behaviors, smoking history and current biochemically verified smoking status.
FINDINGS: Most customers reported starting ENDS as a means of smoking cessation
(86%), using newer-generation devices (89%), vaping non-tobacco/non-menthol
flavors (72%) and using e-liquid with nicotine strengths of ≤20 mg/ml (72%).
There was a high rate of switching (91.4%) to newer-generation ENDS among those
who started with a first-generation product. Exhaled CO readings confirmed that
66% of the tested sample had quit smoking. Among those who continued to smoke,
mean cigarettes per day decreased from 22.1 to 7.5 (P <0.001). People who
reported vaping longer [odds ratio (OR) = 4.659, 95% confidence interval
(CI) = 2.001-10.846], using newer-generation devices (OR = 2.950, 95%
CI = 1.037-8.395) and using non-tobacco and non-menthol flavors (OR = 2.626, 95%
CI = 1.133-6.085) were more likely to have quit smoking.
CONCLUSIONS: Among vapor store customers in the United States who use electronic
nicotine delivery devices to stop smoking, vaping longer, using newer-generation
devices and using non-tobacco and non-menthol flavored e-liquid appear to be
associated with higher rates of smoking cessation.

© 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

PMID: 25675943 [PubMed – in process]
81. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Apr 1;149:25-30. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.001.
Epub 2015 Jan 24.

Risky behaviors, e-cigarette use and susceptibility of use among college
students.

Saddleson ML(1), Kozlowski LT(2), Giovino GA(2), Hawk LW(3), Murphy JM(4),
MacLean MG(5), Goniewicz ML(6), Homish GG(2), Wrotniak BH(7), Mahoney MC(8).

Author information:
(1)University at Buffalo, State University of New York, School of Public Health
and Health Professions, Department of Community Health and Health Behavior,
Buffalo, NY, USA. Electronic address: mls38@buffalo.edu. (2)University at
Buffalo, State University of New York, School of Public Health and Health
Professions, Department of Community Health and Health Behavior, Buffalo, NY,
USA. (3)University at Buffalo, State University of New York; Department of
Psychology, Buffalo, NY, USA. (4)State University of New York, at Cortland,
Health Department, Cortland, NY, USA. (5)State University of New York, Buffalo
State, Department of Psychology, Buffalo, NY, USA. (6)Roswell Park Cancer
Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, Buffalo, NY,
USA. (7)D’Youville College, Center for Health Behavior Research, Buffalo, NY,
USA. (8)University at Buffalo, State University of New York, School of Public
Health and Health Professions, Department of Community Health and Health
Behavior, Buffalo, NY, USA; Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine
and Department of Health Behavior, Buffalo, NY, USA.

BACKGROUND: Since 2007, there has been a rise in the use of electronic cigarettes
(e-cigarettes). The present study uses cross-sectional data (2013) to examine
prevalence, correlates and susceptibility to e-cigarettes among young adults.
METHODS: Data were collected using an Internet survey from a convenience sample
of 1437, 18-23 year olds attending four colleges/universities in Upstate New
York. Results were summarized using descriptive statistics; logistic regression
models were analyzed to identify correlates of e-cigarette use and susceptibility
to using e-cigarettes.
RESULTS: Nearly all respondents (95.5%) reported awareness of e-cigarettes; 29.9%
were ever users and 14.9% were current users. Younger students, males,
non-Hispanic Whites, respondents reporting average/below average school ability,
ever smokers and experimenters of tobacco cigarettes, and those with lower
perceptions of harm regarding e-cigarettes demonstrated higher odds of ever use
or current use. Risky behaviors (i.e., tobacco, marijuana or alcohol use) were
associated with using e-cigarettes. Among never e-cigarette users, individuals
involved in risky behaviors or, with lower harm perceptions for e-cigarettes,
were more susceptible to future e-cigarette use.
CONCLUSIONS: More e-cigarette users report use of another nicotine product
besides e-cigarettes as the first nicotine product used; this should be
considered when examining whether e-cigarette use is related to cigarette
susceptibility. Involvement in risky behaviors is related to e-cigarette use and
susceptibility to e-cigarette use. Among college students, e-cigarette use is
more likely to occur in those who have also used other tobacco products,
marijuana, and/or alcohol.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25666362 [PubMed – in process]
82. Community Dent Health. 2014 Dec;31(4):194-5.

The European Association of Dental Public Health conference resolution on the
control of e-cigarettes; or « you have to be a bit crazy to carry on smoking
conventional cigarettes when there are e-cigarettes available ».

Jones C, Moore F.

PMID: 25665350 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
83. Mo Med. 2014 Nov-Dec;111(6):464-6.

AMA tackles maintenance of certification & credentialing.

Groshong T; Missouri Delegation to the AMA.

PMID: 25665225 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
84. PLoS One. 2015 Feb 9;10(2):e0117222. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117222.
eCollection 2015.

Puffing topography and nicotine intake of electronic cigarette users.

Behar RZ(1), Hua M(2), Talbot P(2).

Author information:
(1)Cell Molecular and Developmental Biology Graduate Program, University of
California Riverside, Riverside, California, United States of America; Department
of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California Riverside, Riverside,
California, United States of America. (2)Department of Cell Biology and
Neuroscience, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California, United
States of America.

BACKGROUND: Prior electronic cigarette (EC) topography data are based on two
video analyses with limited parameters. Alternate methods for measuring
topography are needed to understand EC use and nicotine intake.
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated EC topography with a CReSS Pocket device and
quantified nicotine intake.
METHODS: Validation tests on pressure drop, flow rate, and volume confirmed
reliable performance of the CReSS Pocket device. Twenty participants used Blu
Cigs and V2 Cigs for 10 minute intervals with a 10-15 minute break between
brands. Brand order was reversed and repeated within 7 days Data were analyzed to
determine puff duration, puff count, volume, flow rate, peak flow, and inter-puff
interval. Nicotine intake was estimated from cartomizer fluid consumption and
topography data.
RESULTS: Nine patterns of EC use were identified. The average puff count and
inter-puff interval were 32 puffs and 17.9 seconds. All participants, except one,
took more than 20 puffs/10 minutes. The averages for puff duration (2.65
seconds/puff), volume/puff (51 ml/puff), total puff volume (1,579 ml), EC fluid
consumption (79.6 mg), flow rate (20 ml/s), and peak flow rate (27 ml/s) were
determined for 10-minute sessions. All parameters except total puff count were
significantly different for Blu versus V2 EC. Total volume for Blu versus V2 was
four-times higher than for conventional cigarettes. Average nicotine intake for
Blu and V2 across both sessions was 1.2 ± 0.5 mg and 1.4 ± 0.7 mg, respectively,
which is similar to conventional smokers.
CONCLUSIONS: EC puffing topography was variable among participants in the study,
but often similar within an individual between brands or days. Puff duration,
inter-puff interval, and puff volume varied from conventional cigarette
standards. Data on total puff volume and nicotine intake are consistent with
compensatory usage of EC. These data can contribute to the development of a
standard protocol for laboratory testing of EC products.

PMCID: PMC4321841
PMID: 25664463 [PubMed – in process]
85. PLoS One. 2015 Feb 6;10(2):e0116732. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116732.
eCollection 2015.

Vapors produced by electronic cigarettes and e-juices with flavorings induce
toxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells
and in mouse lung.

Lerner CA(1), Sundar IK(1), Yao H(1), Gerloff J(1), Ossip DJ(2), McIntosh S(2),
Robinson R(3), Rahman I(1).

Author information:
(1)Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center,
Rochester, NY, United States of America. (2)Department of Public Health Sciences,
University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America.
(3)Mechanical Engineering Department, Rochester Institute of Technology,
Rochester, NY, United States of America.

Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are the key events in the pathogenesis
of chronic airway diseases. The consumption of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs)
with a variety of e-liquids/e-juices is alarmingly increasing without the
unrealized potential harmful health effects. We hypothesized that electronic
nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)/e-cigs pose health concerns due to oxidative
toxicity and inflammatory response in lung cells exposed to their aerosols. The
aerosols produced by vaporizing ENDS e-liquids exhibit oxidant reactivity
suggesting oxidants or reactive oxygen species (OX/ROS) may be inhaled directly
into the lung during a « vaping » session. These OX/ROS are generated through
activation of the heating element which is affected by heating element status
(new versus used), and occurs during the process of e-liquid vaporization.
Unvaporized e-liquids were oxidative in a manner dependent on flavor additives,
while flavors containing sweet or fruit flavors were stronger oxidizers than
tobacco flavors. In light of OX/ROS generated in ENDS e-liquids and aerosols, the
effects of ENDS aerosols on tissues and cells of the lung were measured. Exposure
of human airway epithelial cells (H292) in an air-liquid interface to ENDS
aerosols from a popular device resulted in increased secretion of inflammatory
cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Furthermore, human lung fibroblasts exhibited
stress and morphological change in response to treatment with ENDS/e-liquids.
These cells also secrete increased IL-8 in response to a cinnamon flavored
e-liquid and are susceptible to loss of cell viability by ENDS e-liquids.
Finally, exposure of wild type C57BL/6J mice to aerosols produced from a popular
e-cig increase pro-inflammatory cytokines and diminished lung glutathione levels
which are critical in maintaining cellular redox balance. Thus, exposure to e-cig
aerosols/juices incurs measurable oxidative and inflammatory responses in lung
cells and tissues that could lead to unrealized health consequences.

PMCID: PMC4319729
PMID: 25658421 [PubMed – in process]
86. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2015 Feb;140(3):188-90. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-100074. Epub
2015 Feb 6.

[Smoking cessation–what’s new?].

[Article in German]

Reinhardt C(1), Andreas S(1).

Author information:
(1)Lungenfachklinik Immenhausen, pneumologische Lehrklinik Universitätsmedizin
Göttingen.

PMID: 25658406 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
87. Epidemiol Prev. 2014 Nov-Dec;38(6):390-3.

[Smoking fewer cigarettes per day may determine a significant risk reduction in
developing smoking attributable diseases? Is there a risk reduction for
e-cigarette users?].

[Article in Italian]

Pieri L(1), Chellini E, Gorini G.

Author information:
(1)Scuola di specializzazione in igiene e medicina preventiva, Università di
Firenze. pieriluca@gmail.com.

Among Italian smokers–about 10 millions in 2013–about 600,000 began using
electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) in last years. About 10% of e-cig users quitted
smoking tobacco, whereas the 90% was dual users. Among them, about three out of
four decreased the number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day), but did not
quit. How many fewer cigarettes a smoker has to smoke to obtain significant
health benefits? Is there a threshold? In order to observe a significant 27%
reduction in the risk of developing lung cancer, a smoker must reduce the number
of cig/day by at least 50%, while for the other smoking-related diseases (acute
myocardial infarction – AMI, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases),
halving the number of cig/day did not drive to a significant risk reduction. Even
smoking 5 cig/day increases the risk of AMI, whereas it significantly lowers the
risk of lung cancer. Obviously, quitting smoking is the best choice to highly
reduce risks for all smoking-related diseases. Therefore, in order to achieve
significant risk reductions, e-cig users should quit smoking as first choice, or,
if they feel it is impossible to them, reduce the consumption of traditional
cigarettes to less than 5 cig/day.

PMID: 25651772 [PubMed – in process]
88. PLoS One. 2015 Feb 4;10(2):e0116861. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116861.
eCollection 2015.

Exposure to electronic cigarettes impairs pulmonary anti-bacterial and anti-viral
defenses in a mouse model.

Sussan TE(1), Gajghate S(1), Thimmulappa RK(1), Ma J(1), Kim JH(1), Sudini K(1),
Consolini N(1), Cormier SA(2), Lomnicki S(3), Hasan F(4), Pekosz A(5), Biswal
S(1).

Author information:
(1)Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University,
Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.
(2)Children’s Research Foundation Institute, University of Tennessee Health
Science Center, 50 N. Dunlap, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America.
(3)Department of Environmental Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge,
Louisiana, United States of America. (4)Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State
University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America. (5)W. Harry
Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins
University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
of America.

Electronic cigarettes (E-cigs) have experienced sharp increases in popularity
over the past five years due to many factors, including aggressive marketing,
increased restrictions on conventional cigarettes, and a perception that E-cigs
are healthy alternatives to cigarettes. Despite this perception, studies on
health effects in humans are extremely limited and in vivo animal models have not
been generated. Presently, we determined that E-cig vapor contains 7 x 10(11)
free radicals per puff. To determine whether E-cig exposure impacts pulmonary
responses in mice, we developed an inhalation chamber for E-cig exposure. Mice
that were exposed to E-cig vapor contained serum cotinine concentrations that are
comparable to human E-cig users. E-cig exposure for 2 weeks produced a
significant increase in oxidative stress and moderate macrophage-mediated
inflammation. Since, COPD patients are susceptible to bacterial and viral
infections, we tested effects of E-cigs on immune response. Mice that were
exposed to E-cig vapor showed significantly impaired pulmonary bacterial
clearance, compared to air-exposed mice, following an intranasal infection with
Streptococcus pneumonia. This defective bacterial clearance was partially due to
reduced phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages from E-cig exposed mice. In response
to Influenza A virus infection, E-cig exposed mice displayed increased lung viral
titers and enhanced virus-induced illness and mortality. In summary, this study
reports a murine model of E-cig exposure and demonstrates that E-cig exposure
elicits impaired pulmonary anti-microbial defenses. Hence, E-cig exposure as an
alternative to cigarette smoking must be rigorously tested in users for their
effects on immune response and susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections.

PMCID: PMC4317176
PMID: 25651083 [PubMed – in process]
89. Pediatrics. 2015 Mar;135(3):409-15. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-3202. Epub 2015 Feb 2.

Youth tobacco product use in the United States.

Lee YO(1), Hebert CJ(2), Nonnemaker JM(2), Kim AE(2).

Author information:
(1)RTI International, Public Health Research Division, Research Triangle Park,
North Carolina younlee@rti.org. (2)RTI International, Public Health Research
Division, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

BACKGROUND: Noncigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular among youth,
especially cigarette smokers. Understanding multiple tobacco product use is
necessary to assess the effects of tobacco products on population health. This
study examines multiple tobacco product use and associated risk factors among US
youth.
METHODS: Estimates of current use were calculated for cigarettes, cigars,
smokeless tobacco, hookah, e-cigarettes, pipes, bidis, kreteks, snus, and
dissolvable tobacco by using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey (n
= 24 658), a nationally representative sample of US middle and high school
students. Associations between use patterns and demographic characteristics were
examined by using multinomial logistic regression.
RESULTS: Among youth, 14.7% currently use 1 or more tobacco products. Of these,
2.8% use cigarettes exclusively, and 4% use 1 noncigarette product exclusively;
2.7% use cigarettes with another product (dual use), and 4.3% use 3 or more
products (polytobacco use). Twice as many youth use e-cigarettes alone than dual
use with cigarettes. Among smokers, polytobacco use was significantly associated
with male gender (adjusted relative risk ratio [aRRR] = 3.71), by using flavored
products (aRRR = 6.09), nicotine dependence (aRRR = 1.91), tobacco marketing
receptivity (aRRR = 2.52), and perceived prevalence of peer use of tobacco
products (aRRR = 3.61, 5.73).
CONCLUSIONS: More than twice as many youth in the United States currently use 2
or more tobacco products than cigarettes alone. Continued monitoring of tobacco
use patterns is warranted, especially for e-cigarettes. Youth rates of multiple
product use involving combustible products underscore needs for research
assessing potential harms associated with these patterns.

Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

PMID: 25647680 [PubMed – in process]
90. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Feb 2. pii: ntv020. [Epub ahead of print]

Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking
Cessation: A Focus Group Study.

Camenga DR(1), Cavallo DA(2), Kong G(2), Morean ME(3), Connell CM(2), Simon P(2),
Bulmer SM(4), Krishnan-Sarin S(5).

Author information:
(1)Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT;
(2)Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT;
(3)Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; Department
of Psychology, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH. (4)Department of Public Health,
Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT. (5)Department of
Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT;
suchitra.krishnan-sarin@yale.edu.

INTRODUCTION: Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes
(e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about
adolescents and young adults’ perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette
smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students’ beliefs
about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation.
METHODS: We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette
smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school
in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed
cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts
were analyzed using thematic analysis.
RESULTS: All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that
e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school
participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for
smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette
reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However,
overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful
quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of
smoking actions, « healthier » alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval)
and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of
e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing
of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation.
CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that
there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of
both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to
determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population.

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society
for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions,
please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

PMID: 25646346 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
91. CA Cancer J Clin. 2015 Mar;65(2):85-6. doi: 10.3322/caac.21264. Epub 2015 Jan 30.

Electronic cigarettes did not help patients with cancer stop smoking.

Barton MK.

PMID: 25640916 [PubMed – in process]
92. Addiction. 2015 May;110(5):862-7. doi: 10.1111/add.12870. Epub 2015 Mar 5.

The comparative efficacy of first- versus second-generation electronic cigarettes
in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal.

Lechner WV(1), Meier E, Wiener JL, Grant DM, Gilmore J, Judah MR, Mills AC,
Wagener TL.

Author information:
(1)Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Currently, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are studied
as though they are a homogeneous category. However, there are several noteworthy
differences in the products that fall under this name, including potential
differences in the efficacy of these products as smoking cessation aids. The
current study examined the comparative efficacy of first- and second-generation
e-cigarettes in reducing nicotine withdrawal symptoms in a sample of current
smokers with little or no experience of using e-cigarettes.
DESIGN: Twenty-two mildly to moderately nicotine-dependent individuals were
randomized to a cross-over design in which they used first- and second-generation
e-cigarettes on separate days with assessment of withdrawal symptoms directly
prior to and after product use.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A community-based sample recruited in the Midwest
region of the United States reported a mean age of 28.6 [standard deviation
(SD) = 12.9]. The majority were male (56.5%), Caucasian (91.3%), reported smoking
an average of 15.2 (SD = 9.6) tobacco cigarettes per day, and a mean baseline
carbon monoxide (CO) level of 18.7 parts per million (p.p.m.).
MEASUREMENTS: Symptoms of withdrawal from nicotine were measured via the Mood and
Physical Symptoms Scale.
FINDINGS: Analysis of changes in withdrawal symptoms revealed a significant
time × product interaction F(1, 21)  = 5.057, P = 0.036, n(2) P  = 0.202.
Participants experienced a larger reduction in symptoms of nicotine withdrawal
after using second-generation compared with first-generation e-cigarettes.
CONCLUSIONS: Second-generation e-cigarettes seem to be more effective in reducing
symptoms of nicotine withdrawal than do first-generation e-cigarettes.

© 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

PMID: 25639148 [PubMed – in process]
93. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Jan 30. pii: ntu279. [Epub ahead of print]

Chemical Composition and Evaluation of Nicotine, Tobacco Alkaloids, pH, and
Selected Flavors in E-Cigarette Cartridges and Refill Solutions.

Lisko JG(1), Tran H(2), Stanfill SB(2), Blount BC(2), Watson CH(2).

Author information:
(1)Tobacco and Volatiles Branch, Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center
for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA
jlisko@cdc.gov. (2)Tobacco and Volatiles Branch, Division of Laboratory Sciences,
National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing dramatically
in developed countries, but little is known about these rapidly evolving
products. This study analyzed and evaluated the chemical composition including
nicotine, tobacco alkaloids, pH, and flavors in 36 e-liquids brands from 4
manufacturers.
METHODS: We determined the concentrations of nicotine, alkaloids, and select
flavors and measured pH in solutions used in e-cigarettes. E-cigarette products
were chosen based upon favorable consumer approval ratings from online review
websites. Quantitative analyses were performed using strict quality
assurance/quality control validated methods previously established by our lab for
the measurement of nicotine, alkaloids, pH, and flavors.
RESULTS: Three-quarters of the products contained lower measured nicotine levels
than the stated label values (6%-42% by concentration). The pH for e-liquids
ranged from 5.1-9.1. Minor tobacco alkaloids were found in all samples containing
nicotine, and their relative concentrations varied widely among manufacturers. A
number of common flavor compounds were analyzed in all e-liquids.
CONCLUSIONS: Free nicotine levels calculated from the measurement of pH
correlated with total nicotine content. The direct correlation between the total
nicotine concentration and pH suggests that the alkalinity of nicotine drives the
pH of e-cigarette solutions. A higher percentage of nicotine exists in the more
absorbable free form as total nicotine concentration increases. A number of
products contained tobacco alkaloids at concentrations that exceed U.S.
pharmacopeia limits for impurities in nicotine used in pharmaceutical and food
products.

© Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on
Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s)
and is in the public domain in the US.

PMID: 25636907 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
94. Cancer Discov. 2015 Mar;5(3):219. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-NB2015-007. Epub 2015
Jan 27.

AACR, ASCO Call for E-cigarette Regulation.

[No authors listed]

In a joint policy statement, the American Association for Cancer Research and the
American Society of Clinical Oncology call for the regulation of electronic
cigarettes and other electronic nicotine delivery systems. The statement also
calls for banning flavors that appeal to children and requiring manufacturers to
disclose full ingredient lists to the FDA.

©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

PMID: 25627454 [PubMed – in process]
95. NASN Sch Nurse. 2015 Jan;30(1):26-8.

E-cigarettes: a new challenge for public health and for school nurses.

Wimmer HP.

PMID: 25626238 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
96. J Addict Med. 2015 Mar-Apr;9(2):157-8. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000100.

Demystifying electronic cigarette use in pregnancy.

Farquhar B(1), Mark K, Terplan M, Chisolm MS.

Author information:
(1)From the University of Maryland (BF, KM, MT), Baltimore; and Johns Hopkins
University School of Medicine (MSC), Baltimore, MD.

Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are a relatively recent phenomenon, serving a dual
role as a potential smoking-cessation tool and an alternative nicotine-delivery
system. Although research has addressed the use of ECIGs in general populations,
its use during pregnancy has not been studied. The authors seek to inform readers
about the current evidence base regarding ECIG use in general and to describe a
patient who began using ECIGs regularly during pregnancy as a smoking cessation
tool. Continued research is needed to inform patients about the potential risks
and benefits of ECIG use, including during pregnancy.

PMID: 25622121 [PubMed – in process]
97. Tob Induc Dis. 2014 Dec 9;12(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s12971-014-0023-6. eCollection
2014.

Electronic cigarettes: overview of chemical composition and exposure estimation.

Hahn J(1), Monakhova YB(2), Hengen J(3), Kohl-Himmelseher M(3), Schüssler J(3),
Hahn H(1), Kuballa T(3), Lachenmeier DW(3).

Author information:
(1)Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Sigmaringen,
Fidelis-Graf-Straße 1, 72488 Sigmaringen, Germany. (2)Chemisches und
Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, 76187
Karlsruhe, Germany ; Institute of Chemistry, Saratov State University,
Astrakhanskaya Street 83, 410012 Saratov, Russia ; Bruker Biospin GmbH,
Silberstreifen, 76287 Rheinstetten, Germany. (3)Chemisches und
Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, 76187
Karlsruhe, Germany.

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised to tobacco users
as a tool to decrease cigarette consumption and to reduce toxic exposure
associated with conventional tobacco smoking. Little is known about the compounds
contained in such products, their exposure and long-term health effects.
METHODS: NMR spectroscopy was used to ascertain the content of several
constituents of e-cigarette liquids including nicotine, solvents and some
bioactive flavour compounds. Risk assessment was based on probabilistic exposure
estimation and comparison with toxicological thresholds using the margin of
exposure (MOE) approach.
RESULTS: In 54 samples of e-cigarette liquids, the average nicotine content was
11 mg/ml. Only 18 from 23 samples were confirmed as nicotine-free samples and in
one e-cigarette liquid nicotine was not detected while being declared on the
labelling. Major compounds of e-cigarette liquids include glycerol (average
37 g/100 g), propylene glycol (average 57 g/100 g) and ethylene glycol (average
10 g/100 g). Furthermore, 1,3-propanediol, thujone and ethyl vanillin were
detected in some samples. The average exposure for daily users was estimated as
0.38 mg/kg bw/day for nicotine, 8.9 mg/kg bw/day for glycerol, 14.5 mg/kg bw/day
for 1,2-propanediol, 2.1 mg/kg bw/day for ethylene glycol, and below 0.2 mg/kg
bw/day for the other compounds. The MOE was below 0.1 for nicotine, but all other
compounds did not reach MOE values below 100 except ethylene glycol and
1,2-propanediol.
CONCLUSIONS: NMR spectroscopy is a useful and rapid method to simultaneously
detect several ingredients in e-cigarette liquids. From all compounds tested,
only nicotine may reach exposures that fall into a high risk category with MOE
<1. Therefore, e-cigarette liquid products should be subjected to regulatory
control to ensure consistent nicotine delivery. Solvents with more favourable
toxicological profiles should be used instead of ethylene glycol and
1,2-propanediol, which may fall into a risk category with MOE < 100.

PMCID: PMC4304610
PMID: 25620905 [PubMed]
98. Science. 2015 Jan 23;347(6220):375-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1260761.

Public health. Smoke and fire over e-cigarettes.

Fairchild AL(1), Bayer R(2).

Author information:
(1)Department of Sociomedical Sciences, Rosenfield Building, Columbia University,
New York, NY 10032, USA. alf4@columbia.edu. (2)Department of Sociomedical
Sciences, Rosenfield Building, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

PMID: 25613878 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
99. Eur Addict Res. 2015;21(3):124-30. doi: 10.1159/000369791. Epub 2015 Jan 20.

Electronic cigarettes and cannabis: an exploratory study.

Etter JF(1).

Author information:
(1)Institute of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva,
Switzerland.

AIMS: To describe cannabis ‘vaping’ with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or
electronic vaporizers (e-vaporizers).
METHODS: Internet survey in 2013-2014. Participants were 11 people who ‘vaped’
cannabis with e-cigarettes and 44 people who vaped cannabis with e-vaporizers,
enrolled online.
RESULTS: Most participants were men (78%). They had used e-cigarettes for 6 days
and e-vaporizers for 50 days on average to vape cannabis. Current users of
e-cigarettes vaped cannabis on 2 days/week versus 6 days/week for users of
e-vaporizers. In these devices, they mostly inserted cannabis buds and oil rather
than hashish or wax/butane honey oil. Dual users, who both smoked and vaped
cannabis, currently smoked 5 joints/week compared to 14 joints/week before they
started to vape cannabis (p = 0.004). Half the participants (45%) reported that
vaping cannabis helped them stop or reduce their total cannabis use, 37% that it
had no impact on their cannabis use, and 6% that it increased it. Vaping cannabis
was perceived as healthier and more discrete than smoking it (less odor).
Disadvantages included dry mouth and fewer positive cannabis effects.
CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis vaping via e-cigarettes or e-vaporizers is an infrequent
behavior that was previously almost undocumented. E-cigarettes do not appear to
be a very appealing way to use cannabis.

© 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

PMID: 25613866 [PubMed – in process]
100. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jan 22;372(4):392-4. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1413069.

Hidden formaldehyde in e-cigarette aerosols.

Jensen RP(1), Luo W, Pankow JF, Strongin RM, Peyton DH.

Author information:
(1)Portland State University, Portland, OR peytond@pdx.edu.

Comment in
N Engl J Med. 2015 Apr 16;372(16):1575-6.
N Engl J Med. 2015 Apr 16;372(16):1576.
N Engl J Med. 2015 Apr 16;372(16):1575.
N Engl J Med. 2015 Apr 16;372(16):1576-7.

PMID: 25607446 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
101. Nurs Stand. 2015 Jan 27;29(21):16. doi: 10.7748/ns.29.21.16.s20.

E-cigarettes can help smokers to safely cut down or quit.

[No authors listed]

The first Cochrane review of the emerging evidence on electronic cigarettes
(e-cigarettes) suggests they can help smokers to stop or reduce their use of
conventional cigarettes without serious adverse effects.

PMID: 25605085 [PubMed – in process]
102. Rev Med Suisse. 2014 Nov 19;10(451):2179-80.

[E-cigarette stirs controversies].

[Article in French]

Rochat T, Nicod LP.

PMID: 25603563 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
103. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Mar 1;148:102-8. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.12.030.
Epub 2015 Jan 3.

Explaining the effects of electronic cigarettes on craving for tobacco in recent
quitters.

Etter JF(1).

Author information:
(1)Institute of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, CH-1211
Geneva 4, Switzerland. Electronic address: Jean-Francois.Etter@unige.ch.

OBJECTIVE: To explore how e-cigarettes attenuate craving for tobacco, in
e-cigarette users who recently quit smoking.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of recent quitters, Internet (French and English),
2012-2014. Participants were 374 daily users of e-cigarettes who had quit smoking
in the previous two months, enrolled on websites dedicated to e-cigarettes and to
smoking cessation. We measured perception that e-cigarettes attenuate craving for
tobacco cigarettes, characteristics of e-cigarettes, modifications of the
devices, patterns of e-cigarette use, reasons for use, satisfaction with
e-cigarettes, dependence on e-cigarettes, and personal characteristics.
RESULTS: The strongest attenuation of craving for tobacco was obtained by using
higher nicotine concentrations in refill liquids, modular systems (rather than
unmodified devices), and high voltage batteries. The strength of the effect of
e-cigarettes on craving was also associated with more intensive use (more puffs
per day, more refill liquid). Stronger effects on craving were associated with
satisfaction with e-cigarettes, and with reporting that e-cigarettes helped to
quit smoking. Participants who reported the strongest effects on craving for
tobacco were the most dependent on the e-cigarette and had the strongest urges to
vape.
CONCLUSIONS: From a public health perspective, there is a trade-off between
e-cigarettes that provide high levels of nicotine, high satisfaction and more
effects on craving for tobacco, but may also be addictive, and e-cigarettes that
contain less nicotine and are less addictive, but are also less satisfactory and
less efficient at relieving craving and at helping dependent smokers quit
smoking. This trade-off must be kept in mind when regulating e-cigarettes.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25592454 [PubMed – in process]
104. Thorax. 2015 Apr;70(4):307-8. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-206735. Epub 2015 Jan
14.

Electronic cigarettes: reasons to be cautious.

Furber A.

PMID: 25589518 [PubMed – in process]
105. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Jan 12. pii: ntv005. [Epub ahead of print]

Why We Consider the NIOSH-Proposed Safety Limits for Diacetyl and Acetyl
Propionyl Appropriate in the Risk Assessment of Electronic Cigarette Liquid Use:
A Response to Hubbs et al.

Farsalinos KE(1), Kistler KA(2), Gillman G(3), Voudris V(4).

Author information:
(1)Department of Cardiology, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Kallithea, Greece;
kfarsalinos@gmail.com. (2)Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University
Brandywine, Media, PA; (3)Enthalpy Analytical, Inc., Durham, NC. (4)Department of
Cardiology, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Kallithea, Greece;

PMID: 25586778 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
106. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Jan 12. pii: ntu338. [Epub ahead of print]

Comment on Farsalinos et al., « Evaluation of Electronic Cigarette Liquids and
Aerosol for the Presence of Selected Inhalation Toxins »

Hubbs AF(1), Cummings KJ(2), McKernan LT(3), Dankovic DA(3), Park RM(3), Kreiss
K(2).

Author information:
(1)Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety
and Health, Morgantown, WV; ahubbs@cdc.gov. (2)Division of Respiratory Disease
Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV;
(3)Education and Information Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety
and Health, Cincinnati, OH.

PMID: 25586777 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
107. Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed). 2015 Feb;68(2):136-43. doi: 10.1016/j.rec.2014.10.005.
Epub 2015 Jan 9.

Update in cardiology: vascular risk and cardiac rehabilitation.

Galve E(1), Cordero A(2), Bertomeu-Martínez V(2), Fácila L(3), Mazón P(4),
Alegría E(5), Fernández de Bobadilla J(6), García-Porrero E(7), Martínez-Sellés
M(8), González-Juanatey JR(4).

Author information:
(1)Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona,
Spain. Electronic address: egalve@vhebron.net. (2)Departamento de Cardiología,
Hospital Universitario de San Juan, San Juan de Alicante, Alicante, Spain.
(3)Servicio de Cardiología, Consorcio Hospital General de Valencia, Valencia,
Spain. (4)Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Universitario Santiago de Compostela,
Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña, Spain. (5)Servicio de Cardiología, Policlínica
Gipuzkoa, San Sebastián, Guipúzcoa, Spain. (6)Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital
La Paz, Madrid, Spain. (7)Servicio de Cardiología, Complejo Hospitalario
Universitario de León, León, Spain. (8)Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital General
Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.

As in other fields, understanding of vascular risk and rehabilitation is
constantly improving. The present review of recent epidemiological update shows
how far we are from achieving good risk factor control: in diet and nutrition,
where unhealthy and excessive societal consumption is clearly increasing the
prevalence of obesity; in exercise, where it is difficult to find a balance
between benefit and risk, despite systemization efforts; in smoking, where
developments center on programs and policies, with the electronic cigarette
seeming more like a problem than a solution; in lipids, where the transatlantic
debate between guidelines is becoming a paradigm of the divergence of views in
this extensively studied area; in hypertension, where a nonpharmacological
alternative (renal denervation) has been undermined by the SYMPLICITY HTN-3
setback, forcing a deep reassessment; in diabetes mellitus, where the new
dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors and
glucagon like peptide 1 analogues have contributed much new information and a
glimpse of the future of diabetes treatment, and in cardiac rehabilitation, which
continues to benefit from new information and communication technologies and
where clinical benefit is not hindered by advanced diseases, such as heart
failure. Our summary concludes with the update in elderly patients, whose
treatment criteria are extrapolated from those of younger patients, with the
present review clearly indicating that should not be the case.

Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España,
S.L.U. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25583549 [PubMed – in process]
108. Int J Drug Policy. 2014 Dec 17. pii: S0955-3959(14)00365-X. doi:
10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.12.009. [Epub ahead of print]

Prevalence and reasons for use of electronic cigarettes among smokers: Findings
from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.

Hummel K(1), Hoving C(2), Nagelhout GE(3), de Vries H(2), van den Putte B(4),
Candel MJ(5), Borland R(6), Willemsen MC(3).

Author information:
(1)Department of Health Promotion, Maastricht University (CAPHRI), P. Debyeplein
1, 6229 HA Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
Karin.Hummel@maastrichtuniversity.nl. (2)Department of Health Promotion,
Maastricht University (CAPHRI), P. Debyeplein 1, 6229 HA Maastricht, The
Netherlands. (3)Department of Health Promotion, Maastricht University (CAPHRI),
P. Debyeplein 1, 6229 HA Maastricht, The Netherlands; Alliance Smokefree Holland,
Eisenhowerlaan 108, 2517 KL The Hague, The Netherlands. (4)Department of
Communication, University of Amsterdam (ASCoR), Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV
Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Trimbos Institute, Netherlands Institute for Mental
Health and Addiction, Da Costakade 45, 3521 VS Utrecht, The Netherlands.
(5)Department of Methodology and Statistics, Maastricht University (CAPHRI), P.
Debyeplein 1, 6229 HA Maastricht, The Netherlands. (6)Research Division, The
Cancer Council Victoria, 1 Rathdowne St, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia.

BACKGROUND: Not much is known about how people in the Netherlands respond to
electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes); how many know about them, which people try
them, keep using them and why, and what are changes over time regarding awareness
and use?
METHODS: We used samples of smokers aged 15 years and older from 2008 (n=1820),
2010 (n=1702), 2013 (n=1530), and 2014 (n=1550) as part of the International
Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. Reasons for use and characteristics of
smokers were examined using the sample from 2014. Logistic regression analyses
were conducted to evaluate the associations between smoking-related variables
with ever trying e-cigarettes and current e-cigarette use.
RESULTS: In 2014, 91.4% of Dutch smokers reported being aware of e-cigarettes
(97.1% in 2008, 89.2% in 2010, and 85.5% in 2013), 40.0% reported having ever
tried them (13.4% in 2008, 14.5% in 2010, and 19.6% in 2013), and 15.9% were
currently using them (4.0% in 2008, 1% in 2010, and 3.9% in 2013). The main
reason given for using e-cigarettes was to reduce the number of regular
cigarettes smoked per day (79%). Ever trying e-cigarettes among those aware of
e-cigarettes was associated with being young, smoking more regular cigarettes per
day, having made a quit attempt in the last year, having used smoking cessation
pharmacotherapy in the last year, and reporting high awareness of the price of
regular cigarettes. Smokers who kept using e-cigarettes had a higher educational
background, had higher harm awareness for the health of others, and were less
likely to have a total smoking ban at home.
CONCLUSION: E-cigarettes are increasingly used by Dutch smokers. Commonly
endorsed motivations for current e-cigarette use were to reduce tobacco smoking
and because e-cigarettes are considered to be less harmful than tobacco
cigarettes.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25582280 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
109. Environ Pollut. 2015 Mar;198:100-7. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2014.12.033. Epub 2015
Jan 9.

Environmental health hazards of e-cigarettes and their components: Oxidants and
copper in e-cigarette aerosols.

Lerner CA(1), Sundar IK(1), Watson RM(2), Elder A(1), Jones R(3), Done D(3),
Kurtzman R(3), Ossip DJ(3), Robinson R(4), McIntosh S(3), Rahman I(5).

Author information:
(1)Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center,
Rochester, NY 14642, USA. (2)Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics,
University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. (3)Department
of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY
14642, USA. (4)Mechanical Engineering Department, Rochester Institute of
Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA. (5)Department of Environmental Medicine,
University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA; Department of
Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY
14642, USA. Electronic address: irfan_rahman@urmc.rochester.edu.

To narrow the gap in our understanding of potential oxidative properties
associated with Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) i.e. e-cigarettes, we
employed semi-quantitative methods to detect oxidant reactivity in disposable
components of ENDS/e-cigarettes (batteries and cartomizers) using a fluorescein
indicator. These components exhibit oxidants/reactive oxygen species reactivity
similar to used conventional cigarette filters. Oxidants/reactive oxygen species
reactivity in e-cigarette aerosols was also similar to oxidant reactivity in
cigarette smoke. A cascade particle impactor allowed sieving of a range of
particle size distributions between 0.450 and 2.02 μm in aerosols from an
e-cigarette. Copper, being among these particles, is 6.1 times higher per puff
than reported previously for conventional cigarette smoke. The detection of a
potentially cytotoxic metal as well as oxidants from e-cigarette and its
components raises concern regarding the safety of e-cigarettes use and the
disposal of e-cigarette waste products into the environment.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMCID: PMC4323666 [Available on 2016-03-01]
PMID: 25577651 [PubMed – in process]
110. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Mar 10;33(8):952-63. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2014.59.4465. Epub 2015
Jan 8.

Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a policy statement from the American
Association forCancer Research and theAmerican Society of Clinical Oncology.

Brandon TH(1), Goniewicz ML(1), Hanna NH(1), Hatsukami DK(1), Herbst RS(2), Hobin
JA(1), Ostroff JS(1), Shields PG(1), Toll BA(1), Tyne CA(1), Viswanath K(1),
Warren GW(1).

Author information:
(1)Thomas H. Brandon, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL; Maciej L. Goniewicz,
Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo; Jamie S. Ostroff, Memorial
Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Nasser H. Hanna, Indiana University
Health Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN; Dorothy K. Hatsukami, Masonic
Cancer Center, Minneapolis, MN; Roy S. Herbst and Benjamin A. Toll, Yale
Comprehensive Cancer Center, New Haven, CT; Jennifer A. Hobin, American
Association for Cancer Research, Philadelphia, PA; Peter G. Shields, Ohio State
University Medical Center, Columbus, OH; Courtney A. Tyne, American Society of
Clinical Oncology, Alexandria, VA; Kasisomayajula Viswanath, Dana-Farber Cancer
Institute, Boston, MA; and Graham W. Warren, Medical University of South
Carolina, Charleston, SC. (2)Thomas H. Brandon, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL;
Maciej L. Goniewicz, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo; Jamie S. Ostroff,
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Nasser H. Hanna, Indiana
University Health Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN; Dorothy K. Hatsukami,
Masonic Cancer Center, Minneapolis, MN; Roy S. Herbst and Benjamin A. Toll, Yale
Comprehensive Cancer Center, New Haven, CT; Jennifer A. Hobin, American
Association for Cancer Research, Philadelphia, PA; Peter G. Shields, Ohio State
University Medical Center, Columbus, OH; Courtney A. Tyne, American Society of
Clinical Oncology, Alexandria, VA; Kasisomayajula Viswanath, Dana-Farber Cancer
Institute, Boston, MA; and Graham W. Warren, Medical University of South
Carolina, Charleston, SC. roy.herbst@yale.edu.

Combustible tobacco use remains the number-one preventable cause of disease,
disability, and death in the United States. Electronic nicotine delivery systems
(ENDS), which include electronic cigarettes, are devices capable of delivering
nicotine in an aerosolized form. ENDS use by both adults and youth has increased
rapidly, and some have advocated these products could serve as harm-reduction
devices and smoking cessation aids. ENDS may be beneficial if they reduce smoking
rates or prevent or reduce the known adverse health effects of smoking. However,
ENDS may also be harmful, particularly to youth, if they increase the likelihood
that nonsmokers or former smokers will use combustible tobacco products or if
they discourage smokers from quitting. The American Association for Cancer
Research (AACR) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recognize
the potential ENDS have to alter patterns of tobacco use and affect the health of
the public; however, definitive data are lacking. The AACR and ASCO recommend
additional research on these devices, including assessing the health impacts of
ENDS, understanding patterns of ENDS use, and determining what role ENDS have in
cessation. Key policy recommendations include supporting federal, state, and
local regulation of ENDS; requiring manufacturers to register with the US Food
and Drug Administration and report all product ingredients, requiring childproof
caps on ENDS liquids, and including warning labels on products and their
advertisements; prohibiting youth-oriented marketing and sales; prohibiting
child-friendly ENDS flavors; and prohibiting ENDS use in places where cigarette
smoking is prohibited. This policy statement was developed by a joint writing
group composed of members from the Tobacco and Cancer Subcommittee of the
American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Science Policy and Government
Affairs (SPGA) Committee and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Tobacco
Cessation and Control Subcommittee of the Cancer Prevention Committee (CaPC). The
statement was reviewed by both parent committees (ie, the AACR SPGA Committee and
the ASCO CaPC) and was approved by the AACR Boards of Directors on August 6,
2014, and the ASCO Executive Committee on September 18, 2014. This policy
statement was published jointly by invitation and consent in both Clinical Cancer
Research and Journal of Clinical Oncology. Copyright 2015 American Association
for Cancer Research and American Society of Clinical Oncology. All rights
reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or
storage in any information storage and retrieval system, without written
permission by the American Association for Cancer Research and the American
Society of Clinical Oncology.

© 2015 by American Association for Cancer Research and American Society of
Clinical Oncology.

PMID: 25572671 [PubMed – in process]
111. Mayo Clin Proc. 2015 Jan;90(1):128-34. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.11.004.

Counseling patients on the use of electronic cigarettes.

Ebbert JO(1), Agunwamba AA(2), Rutten LJ(3).

Author information:
(1)Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Healthcare Delivery,
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address: ebbert.jon@mayo.edu. (2)Robert D.
and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Healthcare Delivery, Mayo Clinic,
Rochester, MN. (3)Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of
Healthcare Delivery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Department of Health Sciences
Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Comment in
Mayo Clin Proc. 2015 Jan;90(1):1-3.

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have substantially increased in popularity.
Clear evidence about the safety of e-cigarettes is lacking, and laboratory
experiments and case reports suggest these products may be associated with
potential adverse health consequences. The effectiveness of e-cigarettes for
smoking cessation is modest and appears to be comparable to the nicotine patch
combined with minimal behavioral support. Although a role for e-cigarettes in the
treatment of tobacco dependence may emerge in the future, the potential risk of
e-cigarettes outweighs their known benefit as a recommended tobacco treatment
strategy by clinicians. Patients should be counseled on the known efficacy and
potential risks of e-cigarettes.

Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by
Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25572196 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
112. Mayo Clin Proc. 2015 Jan;90(1):71-6. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.11.005.

Attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding electronic nicotine delivery systems
in patients scheduled for elective surgery.

Kadimpati S(1), Nolan M(1), Warner DO(2).

Author information:
(1)Department of Anesthesiology and Nicotine Dependence Center, Mayo Clinic,
Rochester, MN. (2)Department of Anesthesiology and Nicotine Dependence Center,
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address: warner.david@mayo.edu.

Comment in
Mayo Clin Proc. 2015 Jan;90(1):1-3.

Smokers are at increased risk of postoperative complications. Electronic nicotine
delivery systems (ENDS; or electronic cigarettes) could be a useful tool to
reduce harm in the perioperative period. This pilot study examined the attitudes,
beliefs, and practices of smokers scheduled for elective surgery regarding ENDS.
This was a cross-sectional survey of current cigarette smokers who were evaluated
in a preoperative clinic before elective surgery at Mayo Clinic. Measures
included demographic characteristics, smoking history, 2 indices assessing the
perception of how smoking affected health risks, ENDS use history, and 3 indices
assessing interest in, perceived benefits of, and barriers to using ENDS in the
perioperative period. Of the 112 smokers who completed the survey, 62 (55%) had
tried ENDS and 24 (21%) reported current use. The most commonly stated reason for
using ENDS was to quit smoking. Approximately 2 in 3 participants would be
willing to use ENDS to help them reduce or eliminate perioperative cigarette use,
and similar proportions perceived health benefits of doing so. Of the factors
studied, only attempted to quit within the last year was significantly associated
with increased interest in the perioperative use of ENDS (P=.03). Compared with
participants who had tried ENDS (n=62), those who had never tried ENDS (n=50) had
a significantly increased interest in the perioperative use of ENDS. A
substantial proportion of patients scheduled for elective surgery had tried ENDS
and would consider using ENDS to reduce perioperative use of cigarettes.

Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by
Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25572195 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
113. Mayo Clin Proc. 2015 Jan;90(1):1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.11.008.

E-cigarettes: an asset or liability in efforts to lessen tobacco smoking and its
consequences.

Galandiuk S(1).

Author information:
(1)Hiram C. Polk Jr, MD, Department of Surgery, University of Louisville,
Louisville, KY. Electronic address: susan.galandiuk@louisville.edu.

Comment on
Mayo Clin Proc. 2015 Jan;90(1):128-34.
Mayo Clin Proc. 2015 Jan;90(1):71-6.

PMID: 25572189 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
114. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Jan 7. pii: ntu333. [Epub ahead of print]

The Impact of Flavor Descriptors on Nonsmoking Teens’ and Adult Smokers’ Interest
in Electronic Cigarettes.

Shiffman S(1), Sembower MA(2), Pillitteri JL(2), Gerlach KK(2), Gitchell JG(3).

Author information:
(1)Pinney Associates, Pittsburgh, PA; Department of Psychology, University of
Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; shiffman@pinneyassociates.com. (2)Pinney Associates,
Pittsburgh, PA; (3)Pinney Associates, Bethesda, MD.

INTRODUCTION: Smokers switching completely from combustible cigarettes to
electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are likely to reduce health risk, suggesting
that e-cigarettes should be made appealing to adult smokers. However, uptake of
e-cigarettes by nonsmoking teens would add risk without benefit and should be
avoided. Although e-cigarette flavors may appeal to adult smokers, the concern is
that flavors might attract nonsmoking teens.
METHODS: Nonsmoking teens (n = 216, ages 13-17, no tobacco in past 6 months) and
adult smokers (n = 432, ages 19-80, smoking 3+ years; could have used
e-cigarettes) were recruited from an Internet research panel. In assessments
completed online (May 22, 2014 to June 13, 2014), participants indicated their
interest (0-10 scale) in e-cigarettes paired with various flavor descriptors.
These were mixed (order balanced) with similar flavor offerings for ice cream and
bottled water to mask the focus on e-cigarettes and validate the assessment.
Mixed models contrasted interest between teens and adults and among adults by
e-cigarette history.
RESULTS: Nonsmoking teens’ interest in e-cigarettes was very low (mean =
0.41±0.14 [SE] on 0-10 scale). Adult smokers’ interest (1.73±0.10), while modest,
was significantly higher overall (p < .0001) and for each flavor (most p values <
.0001). Teen interest did not vary by flavor (p = .75), but adult interest did (p
< .0001). Past-30-day adult e-cigarette users had the greatest interest in
e-cigarettes, and their interest was most affected by flavor. Adults who never
tried e-cigarettes had the lowest interest, yet still higher than nonsmoking
teens’ interest (p < .0001).
CONCLUSION: The e-cigarette flavors tested appealed more to adult smokers than to
nonsmoking teens, but interest in flavors was low for both groups.

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society
for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions,
please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

PMID: 25566782 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
115. Front Behav Neurosci. 2014 Dec 16;8:437. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00437.
eCollection 2014.

Menthol facilitates the intravenous self-administration of nicotine in rats.

Wang T(1), Wang B(2), Chen H(1).

Author information:
(1)Department of Pharmacology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Memphis, TN, USA. (2)College of Pharmacy, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine
Xian Yang, Shaanxi, China.

Menthol is preferred by ~25% of smokers and is the most common flavoring additive
in tobacco and electronic cigarettes. Although some clinical studies have
suggested that menthol facilitates the initiation of smoking and enhances the
dependence on nicotine, many controversies remain. Using licking as the operant
behavior, we found that adolescent rats self-administering nicotine
(30μg/kg/infusion, free base, i.v.) with contingent oral menthol (60μl, 0.01%
w/v) obtained significantly more infusions than rats receiving a vehicle cue or
rats self-administering i.v. saline with a menthol cue. Rats yoked to their
menthol-nicotine masters emitted significantly fewer licks on the active spouts,
indicating that contingent pairing between nicotine and menthol is required for
sustained nicotine intake. Rats that self-administered nicotine with a menthol
cue also exhibited a long-lasting extinction burst and robust reinstatement
behavior, neither of which were observed in rats that self-administered saline
with a menthol cue. The cooling sensation of menthol is induced by activating the
transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8) channel. When WS-23, an odorless agonist
of the TRPM8 channel, was used as a contingent cue for nicotine, the rats
obtained a similar number of nicotine infusions as the rats that were provided a
menthol cue and exhibited a strong preference for the active spout. In contrast,
highly appetitive taste and odor cues failed to support nicotine
self-administration. These data indicated that menthol, likely by inducing a
cooling sensation, becomes a potent conditioned reinforcer when it is
contingently delivered with nicotine. Together, these results provide a key
behavioral mechanism by which menthol promotes the use of tobacco products or
electronic cigarettes.

PMCID: PMC4267270
PMID: 25566005 [PubMed]
116. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015 Jan 6;107(1):496. doi: 10.1093/jnci/dju496. Print 2015
Jan.

Electronic cigarettes might not help cancer patients quit smoking.

Fillon M.

PMID: 25564601 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
117. Tob Control. 2015 Jan 6. pii: tobaccocontrol-2014-051743. doi:
10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051743. [Epub ahead of print]

One of several ‘toys’ for smoking: young adult experiences with electronic
cigarettes in New York City.

McDonald EA(1), Ling PM(2).

Author information:
(1)Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California,
San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA. (2)Center for Tobacco Control
Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco,
California, USA Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine,
University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

OBJECTIVE: This qualitative research explores the use of electronic cigarettes
and other similar ‘vapor’ delivery devices among young adults in New York City.
METHODS: We employed 17 focus groups followed by 12 semistructured interviews to
understand the beliefs, opinions and practices related to the use of electronic
cigarettes among young adult smokers (N=87).
RESULTS: Participants were mainly daily (52%) and non-daily (41%) smokers. While
experimentation with electronic cigarette devices was frequently reported,
participants related an overall lack of information about the devices and what
they did know often reflected messages in e-cigarette marketing campaigns.
Participants also used their own bodily sensations as a way to gauge potential
risks and benefits of the products. Finally, young adults, steeped in a culture
of personal technologies, perceived e-cigarettes as one more ‘toy’ among other
technologies integrated into their everyday lives.
DISCUSSION: E-cigarettes were also frequently used with other tobacco products,
including conventional cigarettes. Our research indicates that public health
campaigns may be needed to counter current industry marketing and inform the
public that electronic cigarettes are currently unregulated, understudied and
contain toxicants and carcinogens.

Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not
already granted under a licence) please go to
http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

PMID: 25564287 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
118. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Feb 1;147:68-75. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.12.007.
Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco
cigarettes.

Etter JF(1), Eissenberg T(2).

Author information:
(1)Institute of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva,
Switzerland. Electronic address: Jean-Francois.Etter@unige.ch. (2)Center for the
Study of Tobacco Products, Dept. of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University,
Richmond, VA, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them
with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes.
DESIGN: Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons
of: (a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users
of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; (b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette
daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no
e-cigarette); (c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with
two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the
Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used
the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence, the nicotine dependence syndrome
scale, the cigarette dependence scale and versions of these scales adapted for
e-cigarettes and nicotine gums.
RESULTS: Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing
e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers,
long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes
than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were
few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (≤3 months) users of
gums or e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual
users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily
smokers.
CONCLUSIONS: Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing
e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes.
E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are
not very addictive.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25561385 [PubMed – in process]
119. Tenn Med. 2014 Winter;107(6):25, 28.

E-cigarettes, vaping, hookahs and patients.

Soper RG.

PMID: 25558524 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
120. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2015 Mar;1340:65-74. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12609. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?

Rom O(1), Pecorelli A, Valacchi G, Reznick AZ.

Author information:
(1)Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine,
Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that can vaporize a nicotine
solution combined with liquid flavors instead of burning tobacco leaves. Since
their emergence in 2004, E-cigarettes have become widely available, and their use
has increased exponentially worldwide. E-cigarettes are aggressively advertised
as a smoking cessation aid; as healthier, cheaper, and more socially acceptable
than conventional cigarettes. In recent years, these claims have been evaluated
in numerous studies. This review explores the development of the current
E-cigarette and its market, prevalence of awareness, and use. The review also
explores the beneficial and adverse effects of E-cigarettes in various aspects in
accordance with recent research. The discussed aspects include smoking cessation
or reduction and the health risks, social impact, and environmental consequences
of E-cigarettes.

© 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

PMID: 25557889 [PubMed – in process]
121. Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed). 2015 Apr;68(4):286-9. doi: 10.1016/j.rec.2014.08.014.
Epub 2014 Dec 30.

Cardiologists and electronic cigarettes.

Fernández de Bobadilla J(1), Dalmau R(2), Saltó E(3).

Author information:
(1)Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:
jfbobadillao@telefonica.net. (2)Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital La Paz, Madrid,
Spain; Comité Nacional para la Prevención del Tabaquismo, Madrid, Spain.
(3)Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Barcelona,
Barcelona, Spain; Departamento de Salud, Dirección General de Planificación e
Investigación en Salud, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.

PMID: 25555535 [PubMed – in process]
122. Tob Control. 2014 Dec 31. pii: tobaccocontrol-2014-051957. doi:
10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051957. [Epub ahead of print]

US campus and university debit card policies regarding tobacco and electronic
cigarettes.

Boyers LN(1), Karimkhani C(2), Riggs J(3), Dellavalle RP(4).

Author information:
(1)Georgetown University, School of Medicine, Washington DC, USA. (2)Columbia
University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA.
(3)Department of Internal Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center,
New York, New York, USA. (4)US Department of Veterans Affairs, Eastern Colorado
Health Care System, Denver, Colorado, USA University of Colorado School of
Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA Department of
Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Anschutz Medical Campus,
University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

PMID: 25552519 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
123. MMW Fortschr Med. 2014 Nov 13;156 Spec no 2:6-7.

[E-cigarettes under scrutiny. « We don’t want yet another new addictive
substance »].

[Article in German]

Pötschke-Langer Martina, Starostzik Christine.

PMID: 25551991 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]